Hesionura elongata, copyright Hans Hillewaert.

Belongs within: Phyllodocida.

The Phyllodocidae are a group of active marine worms with leaf-shaped cirri.

Characters (from Howell 1962): Body long and narrow, with many segments bearing one, two, or more setae; dorsal and ventral cirri leaf-shaped; two anal cirri may be present.

    |  |  |    |--S. fusigeraNP10
    |  |  |    `--S. limbataM62
    |  |  `--EulaliaNP10
    |  |       |--E. clavigeraSP11
    |  |       |--E. foliosa Treadwell 1924H56
    |  |       |--E. microphylloides Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
    |  |       |--E. myriacyclum (Schmarda 1861) [incl. E. quinquelineata Treadwell 1901]H56
    |  |       `--E. viridis (Linnaeus 1767)RP07
    |  `--+--Pseudomystides limbataNP10
    |     |--+--‘Eulalia’ bilineataNP10
    |     |  `--ProtomystidesNP10
    |     |       |--P. exiguaNP10
    |     |       `--P. uschakovi Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
    |     `--+--‘Eulalia’ mustelaNP10
    |        `--+--Pterocirrus macrocerosNP10 [=Eulalia macrocerosK92]
    |           `--+--EumidaNP10
    |              |    |--E. arcticaNP10
    |              |    |--E. sanquineaKBC03
    |              |    `--E. tubiformisKBC03
    |              `--AlciopidaeNP10
    |                   |--Torea fasciata Treadwell 1943H56
    |                   |--AlciopinaNP10
    |                   |--Naiades cantrainii delle Chiaje 1830 (see below for synonymy)H56
    |                   |--Callizonella pigmenta Treadwell 1943H56
    |                   |--Corynocephalus magnachaetus Treadwell 1943H56
    |                   |--Rhynchonerella angelini (Kinberg 1866) (see below for synonymy)H56
    |                   `--VanadisH56
    |                        |--V. crystallina Greeff 1876 [incl. V. collata Treadwell 1928]H56
    |                        |--V. formosa Claparède 1870 [incl. V. fuscapunctata Treadwell 1906]H56
    |                        |--V. minuta Treadwell 1906H56
    |                        `--V. uncinata Treadwell 1943H56
    `--+--+--Chaetoparia nilssoniNP10
       |  `--NotophyllumNP10
       |       |--N. foliosum (Sars 1835)RP07
       |       `--N. splendens (Schmarda 1861)HG14
       `--+--Phyllodoce Ranzani 1817NP10, H62
          |    |--*P. maxillosa Ranzani 1817H62
          |    |--P. groenlandica (Oersted 1843)SS07
          |    |--P. longipesNP10
          |    |--P. maculataM01
          |    |--P. magnaoculata Treadwell 1901H56
          |    |--P. malmgreni Gravier 1900HG14
          |    |--P. mucosa Oersted 1842A70
          |    |--P. nicoyensis Treadwell 1928H56
          |    |--P. stigmata Treadwell 1925H56
          |    |--P. tortugae Treadwell 1917H56
          |    |--P. violacea Treadwell 1926 [=P. variegata Treadwell 1926; incl. P. pruvoti Fauvel 1930]H56
          |    `--P. vittata Ehlers 1864A70
          `--+--Nereiphylla luteaNP10
                  |--P. wahlbergiNP10
                  `--+--P. kosteriensisNP10
                          |    |--E. flavaHG98
                          |    |--E. longa (Fabricius 1780) [incl. E. tuberculata Treadwell 1922]H56
                          |    |--E. pacifica Hartman 1936 [incl. E. maculata Treadwell 1922]H56
                          |    |--E. picta Quatrefages 1865RP07
                          |    `--E. syphonodontaPP64
                          `--Hesionura Hartmann-Schröder 1958H-S86
                               |--H. augeneri (Friedrich 1937)H-S86
                               |--H. coineaui (Laubier 1962)H-S86
                               |    |--H. c. coineauiH-S86
                               |    `--H. c. difficilis (Banse 1963)H-S86
                               |--H. elongata (Southern 1914)H-S86
                               |--H. fragilis Hartmann-Schröder 1958H-S86
                               |--H. japoni Yamanishi 1980H-S86
                               |--H. laubieri Hartmann-Schröder 1963H-S86
                               |--H. mystidoides (Hartmann-Schröder 1963)H-S86
                               |--H. natalensis Hartmann-Schröder 1974H-S86
                               |--H. portmanni Laubier 1967H-S86
                               `--H. serrata (Hartmann-Schröder 1960)H-S86
Phyllodocidae incertae sedis:
  Palaeochaeta Clarke 1903H62
    `--*P. devonica Clarke 1903H62
  Levisettius campylonectusPTV14
    |--A. duplex (McIntosh 1885) [=Phyllodoce (Anaitides) duplex]HG14
    |--A. madeirensis Langerhans 1879 (see below for synonymy)H56
    |--A. panamensis (Treadwell 1917) [=Phyllodoce panamensis]H56
    |--A. pulla (Treadwell 1926) [=Phyllodoce pulla]H56
    |--A. tenuissima (Grube 1878) [=Phyllodoce tenuissima; incl. P. fuscacirrata Treadwell 1926]H56
    `--A. williamsiBRW98
    |--M. ornata (Grube 1878) [incl. M. maculata Treadwell 1920]H56
    `--M. pictaM62
  Genetyllis castanea Maranzeller 1879HG14

Anaitides madeirensis Langerhans 1879 [=Phyllodoce (Anaitis) madeirensis; incl. Mystides gracilis Treadwell 1941, Anaitides minuta Treadwell 1937, Phyllodoce varia Treadwell 1928]H56

Naiades cantrainii delle Chiaje 1830 [incl. Alciopa distorta Treadwell 1943, A. mutilata Treadwell 1934]H56

Rhynchonerella angelini (Kinberg 1866) [=Kronia angelini; incl. Eulalia magnapupula Treadwell 1941]H56

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A70] Amoureux, L. 1970. Annélides Polychètes du Bassin de chasse d’Ostende: inventaire d’une petite collection. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (6): 23–24.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[H56] Hartman, O. 1956. Polychaetous annelids erected by Treadwell, 1891 to 1948, together with a brief chronology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 109 (2): 239–310.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HG98] Holte, B., & B. Gulliksen. 1998. Common macrofaunal dominant species in the sediments of some north Norwegian and Svalbard glacial fjords. Polar Biology 19: 375–382.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HG14] Hutchings, P., C. Glasby, M. Capa & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: polychaetes (Annelida). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 133–159.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[K92] Kozloff, E. N. 1992. The genera of the phylum Orthonectida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 33: 377–406.

[M01] M’Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[NP10] Nygren, A. & F. Pleijel. 2010. Chimaeras and the origins of the holopelagic annelids Typhloscolecidae and Lopadorhynchidae: a reply to Struck and Halanych (2010). Zoologica Scripta 40 (1): 112–114.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SP11] Struck, T. H., C. Paul, N. Hill, S. Hartmann, C. Hösel, M. Kube, B. Lieb, A. Meyer, R. Tiedemann, G. Purschke & C. Bleidorn. 2011. Phylogenomic analyses unravel annelid evolution. Nature 471: 95–98.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *