Phymosomatoida

Adoral view of Phymosoma koenigi, from the Natural History Museum.

Belongs within: Echinacea.
Contains: Thylechinus.

The Phymosomatoida are a group of echinoids known from the Lower Jurassic to the present, characterised by the possession of a stirodont lantern and imperforate primary tubercles (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Lantern stirodont. Apical system lacking large polygonal suranal plates, not simulating calyx. Primary tubercles imperforate. Ambulacral plates simple throughout, or (more usually) compounded in diadematoid manner, trigeminate or polyporous.

<==Phymosomatoida [Phymosomina]
    |  i. s.: Boletechinus Cooke 1955FP66
    |           `--*B. macglameryae Cooke 1955FP66
    |         ‘Echinometra’ thomsoni Haime 1853SG93
    |--Stomopneustes Agassiz 1841FP66 [StomopneustidaeSG93]
    |    |--*S. variolaris (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus variolaris]FP66
    |    `--S. antiquus Nisiyama 1966SG93
    |--Glyptocidaris Agassiz 1853FP66 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*G. crenularis Agassiz 1853FP66
    |    |--G. heteroporus (Lambert 1897)SG93 [=*Heteractis heteroporusFP66, *Heteractechinus heteroporusFP66]
    |    |--‘Heteractis’ lloreae (Cotteau 1890)SG93
    |    `--‘Heteractis’ vilanovae (Cotteau 1890)SG93
    |--Phymosomatidae [Cyphosominae]FP66
    |    |--ThylechinusFP66
    |    |--Acanthechinus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--*A. nodulosus Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |--Actinophyma Cotteau & Gauthier 1895FP66
    |    |    `--*A. spectabile Cotteau & Gauthier 1895FP66
    |    |--Aeolopneustes Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--*A. delorioli Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |--Eurypneustes Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |    `--*E. grandis Duncan & Sladen 1882FP66
    |    |--Hemithylus Arnaud 1895FP66
    |    |    `--*H. rejaudryi (Cotteau 1894) [=Thylechinus rejaudryi]FP66
    |    |--Jacquiertia Mercier 1936FP66
    |    |    `--*J. minuta Mortensen & Mercier 1939FP66
    |    |--Micropsis Cotteau 1856 [incl. Micropsidia Pomel 1869]FP66
    |    |    `--*M. desori Cotteau 1856FP66
    |    |--Narindechinus Lambert 1933FP66
    |    |    `--*N. checchiai Lambert 1933FP66
    |    |--Rachiosoma Pomel 1883 [incl. Miocyphosoma Pomel 1883]FP66
    |    |    `--*R. delamarrei (Deshayes 1831) [=Cyphosoma delamarrei]FP66
    |    |--Gauthieria Lambert 1888FP66
    |    |    |--*G. radiata [=Cyphosoma radiata]FP66
    |    |    `--G. speciosaFP66
    |    |--Glyptocyphus Pomel 1883FP66
    |    |    |--*G. difficilis [=Cyphosoma difficilis]FP66
    |    |    `--G. rotatusFP66
    |    |--Lambertechinus Cossman 1899 (see below for synonymy)FP66
    |    |    |--*L. lapparenti (Cotteau 1883) [=*Asteropsis lapparenti, *Actinopsis lapparenti]FP66
    |    |    `--L. arnaudiFP66
    |    |--Pleurodiadema de Loriol 1870 [incl. Phalacrechinus Lambert 1900]FP66
    |    |    |--*P. stutzi de Loriol 1870FP66
    |    |    `--P. gauthieri Cotteau 1883 [=*Phalacrechinus gauthieri]FP66
    |    |--Porosoma Cotteau 1856 (see below for synonymy)FP66
    |    |    |--*P. cribrum [=Cyphosoma cribrum, *Coptosoma cribrum]FP66
    |    |    |--‘Coptosoma’ lefebvrei Gauthier 1901 [=*Euporophyma lefebvrei]FP66
    |    |    `--P. rousseliFP66
    |    `--Phymosoma Haime 1853 (see below for synonymy)FP66
    |         |--*P. koenigi (Mantell 1822) [=Cidaris koenigi, *Phymatosoma koenigi]FP66
    |         |--P. girumnenseFP66
    |         |--P. regulareFP66
    |         |--‘Cyphosoma’ salmanni [=*Cosmocyphus salmanni]FP66
    |         |--P. subnudumFP66
    |         `--P. taeniatumFP66
    `--StomechinidaeFP66
         |--Codechinus Desor 1856FP66
         |    `--*C. rotundus (Gras 1848) [=Echinus rotundus]FP66
         |--Diplechinus Lambert 1931FP66
         |    `--*D. hebbriensis Lambert 1931FP66
         |--Diplotagma Schlüter 1870FP66
         |    `--*D. altum Schlüter 1870FP66
         |--Gomphechinus Pomel 1883FP66
         |    `--*G. selim [=Leiosoma selim]FP66
         |--Polycyphus Agassiz & Desor 1846 [incl. Sporadocyphus Pomel 1883]FP66
         |    `--*P. normannus Agassiz & Desor 1846FP66
         |--Pseudarbacia Lambert 1897FP66
         |    `--*P. archiaci (Cotteau 1866) [=Leiosoma archiaci]FP66
         |--Thierychinus Lambert 1910FP66
         |    `--*T. delaunayi Lambert 1910FP66
         |--Tiarechinopsis Lambert 1936FP66
         |    `--*T. besairei Lambert 1936FP66
         |--Triadechinus Arnold & Clark 1927FP66
         |    `--*T. multiporus Arnold & Clark 1927FP66
         |--Phymotaxis Lambert & Thiéry 1914 (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |    |--*P. tournoueri (Cotteau 1867) [=Leiosoma tournoueri, *Micropeltis tournoueri]FP66
         |    `--P. mansfieldi Cooke 1941SG93
         |--Jeannetia Mercier 1936 [incl. Parastomechinus Philip 1963]FP66
         |    |--*J. mortenseni Mercier 1937FP66, SG93
         |    `--*Parastomechinus’ broughtoni Philip 1963FP66
         |--Noetlingaster Vredenburg 1911 (see below for synonymy)FP66
         |    |--*N. paucituberculatus (Noetling 1897) [=*Protechinus paucituberculatus, *Noetlingia paucituberculata]FP66
         |    `--N. sanfilippoiFP66
         |--Phymechinus Desor 1856 [incl. Alternechinus Schlüter 1870]FP66
         |    |--*P. mirabilis [=Echinus mirabilis]FP66
         |    `--*Alternechinus’ cretaceus Schlüter 1870FP66
         |--Echinotiara Pomel 1883 [=Echinodiadema Cotteau 1869 non Verrill 1867]FP66
         |    |--*E. bruni (Cotteau 1885) [=*Echinodiadema bruni]FP66
         |    |--E. neocomiensisFP66
         |    `--E. somaliensisFP66
         |--Psephechinus Pomel 1883 [incl. Tiarotropus Pomel 1883]FP66
         |    |--*P. michelini (Cotteau 1884) [=Stomechinus michelini]FP66
         |    |--P. hyattiFP66
         |    `--P. moriereiFP66
         |--Stomechinus Desor 1856 [incl. Cretacechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1911, Sporotaxis Pomel 1883 (n. n.)]FP66
         |    |--*S. bigranularis (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus bigranularis]FP66
         |    |--S. camarensis de Loriol 1887 [=*Cretacechinus camarensis]FP66
         |    |--S. choffatiFP66
         |    `--S. perlatusFP66
         |--Circopeltis Pomel 1883 [incl. Circopeltaris Valette 1893, Micropsina Cotteau 1893, Strictechinus Cotteau 1893]FP66
         |    |--*C. meridanensis (Cotteau 1867) [=Leiosoma meridanensis]FP66
         |    |--*Circopeltaris’ baicheri Valette 1907FP66
         |    |--*Micropsina’ baudoni Cotteau 1893FP66
         |    `--*Strictechinus’ pouechi Cotteau 1893FP66
         `--Trochalosoma Lambert 1897 (see below for synonymy)FP66
              |  i. s.: ‘Circopeltis’ gourdoni Cotteau 1889 [=*Plesiopeltis gourdoni]FP66
              |--*T. (Trochalosoma) rugosum (Cotteau 1860) [=*Leiosoma rugosum]FP66
              `--T. (Plistophyma Peron & Gauthier 1881)FP66
                   |--T. (*P.) africanum (Peron & Gauthier 1881) [=*Plistophyma africanum]FP66
                   `--T. (P.) vidaliFP66

Glyptocidaris Agassiz 1853FP66 [incl. Heteractechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1910FP66, Heteractis Lambert 1897 non Milne-Edwards & Haime 1853FP66; GlyptocidaridaeSG93]

Lambertechinus Cossman 1899 [=Actinopsis Lambert 1897 (preoc.), Asteropsis Cotteau 1883 non Müller & Troschel 1840; incl. Psilosoma Pomel 1883 (preoc.)]FP66

Noetlingaster Vredenburg 1911 [=Noetlingia Lambert 1898 non Hall & Clark 1893, Protechinus Noetling 1897 (preoc.)]FP66

Phymosoma Haime 1853 [=Phymatosoma Lambert & Thiéry 1910; incl. Cosmocyphus Pomel 1883, Cyphosoma Agassiz 1838 non Mannerheim 1837, Dixieus Cooke 1948, Pliocyphosoma Pomel 1883]FP66

Phymotaxis Lambert & Thiéry 1914 [=Micropeltis Pomel 1883 nec Mont. 1842 (ICBN) nec Redtenbacher 1867 nec Kraatz 1880]FP66

Porosoma Cotteau 1856 [=Coptosoma Desor 1855 non Laporte 1833; incl. Euporophyma Gauthier 1901, Microsoma Cotteau 1886]FP66

Trochalosoma Lambert 1897 [=Leiosoma Cotteau 1860 nec Stephens 1829 nec Chevrolat 1837 nec Nicolet 1855; incl. Plesiopeltis Lambert 1897]FP66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

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