Car pini, copyright Bruno Bell.

Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Megalopodidae, Orsodacnidae, Cerambycidae, Vesperidae, Chrysomelidae, Cimberididae, Nemonychidae, AnthribidaeBelidae, Attelabidae, Brentidae, Curculionidae.

The Phytophaga are a diverse clade of insects uniting the Chrysomeloidea (leaf beetles and longicorns) with the Curculionoidea (weevils). Members of this clade are united by the ancestral presence of pseudotetramerous tarsi (with segment 4 minute and concealed between the adjoining segments), together with reduction of the male aedeagus. As indicated by their name, the vast majority of exemplars are plant feeders with most associated with angiosperms (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

The weevils of the Curculionoidea have the head in front of the eyes elongated to form a rostrum (secondarily reduced in some subgroups) with corresponding modifications of the mouthparts including reduction of the mandibles. The labrum is commonly fused but remains free in the basal families Cimberididae, Nemonychidae and Anthribidae.

<==Phytophaga [Bruchelae, Chrysomeliformia, Chrysomelomorpha, Rhynchophori]MW15
    |--Chrysomeloidea [Phytophagoidea, Tetramera]MW15
    |    |--+--+--MegalopodidaeMW15
    |    |  |  `--OxypeltidaeMW15
    |    |  |       |--Oxypeltus quadrispinosusMW15
    |    |  |       `--CheloderusB14
    |    |  |            |--C. childreni Gray 1832B14
    |    |  |            `--C. penaiB14
    |    |  `--+--+--OrsodacnidaeMW15
    |    |     |  `--Anoplodermatinae [Anoplodermatidae]MW15
    |    |     |       |--Migdolus fryanusMW15
    |    |     |       `--Hypocephalus [Hypocephalidae, Hypocephalini]B14
    |    |     |            `--H. armatus Desmarest 1832B14
    |    |     `--+--CerambycidaeMW15
    |    |        `--+--VesperidaeLL20
    |    |           `--DorcasominaeMW15
    |    |                |--CapnolymmaB14
    |    |                |    |--*C. stygia Pascoe 1858B14
    |    |                |    `--C. capreola Pascoe 1866P66
    |    |                `--Apatophysis Gressitt 1947MW15, TT02 [Apatophyseinae]
    |    |                     |--A. barbaraMW15
    |    |                     |--A. serricornis (Gebler 1843) [=Pachyta serricornis; incl. A. mongolica]B14
    |    |                     `--A. sieversiF89
    |    `--ChrysomelidaeMW15
    `--Curculionoidea [Adelognatha, Cryptoplides, Curculionites, Heteromorphi, Rhynchophora]MW15
         |  i. s.: EtheophanusC88
         |           |--E. striatusC88
         |           `--+--E. optandusC88
         |              `--+--E. nitidellusC88
         |                 `--E. pinguisC88
         |         Mahakamia kampmeinertiB14
         |         Aglycyderidae [Proterhinidae]W86
         |           |--ProterhinusO94
         |           `--AglycyderesRD77
         |         CretonanophyesP02 [EccoptarthridaeGE05]
         |           `--C. longirostrisP02
         |         Aades cultratus (Fabricius 1775)Z93 (see below for synonymy)
         |         CatoptesZ93
         |           |--C. brevicornis (Broun 1904) (see below for synonymy)E02
         |           `--C. interruptus (Fabricius 1781) [=Curculio interruptus]Z93
         |         Aoplocnemis clavipes (Fabricius 1775) [=Lixus clavipes]Z93
         |         Cecyropa modestaM94
         |         Tansyphyrus lemnaeH61
         |         PachygasterR26
         |           |--P. armadilloR26
         |           |--P. ligusticiR26
         |           |--P. meridionalisR26
         |           `--P. provincialisR26
         |         ArchaeorrhynchusLB20
            |  `--AnthribidaeLB20
               |  `--AttelabidaeLB20
                  |  `--CurculionidaeLB20
                  `--Caridae [Carinae]LB20
                       |--Cretocar luzziiGE05
                       |--Caenominurus topaliML05
                       `--Car Blackburn 1897M94
                            |--*C. condensatus Blackburn 1897M94
                            |--C. intermediusB14
                            `--C. piniMW15
Phytophaga incertae sedis:
    |--M. affine Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--M. indica Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--C. curvipes Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--C. splendensJ89a
  Acrothinium violaceum Jacoby 1889J89a
  Agasta formosaJ89a
  Eumela cyanicollisJ89a
  Lygaria westermanniJ89a
  Sphaerophysa piceicollis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--E. apicalis Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--E. sumatrensisJ89b
    |--P. bifasciata Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--P. xanthospilaJ89a
  Clitea pictaJ89a
    |--B. balyi Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--B. clarkiJ89a
  Clitena cyaneaJ89a
  Paridea thoracicaJ89a
    |--P. birmanica Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--P. buquetiJ89a
  Sastroides birmanica Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--M. cervinusJ89a
    |--M. cynicusJ89a
    `--M. dimidiaticornis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--H. nigricollisJ89b
    |--H. parvulusJ89b
    |--H. scutellataJ89a
    `--H. sublaevicollis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--S. bicolorJ89a
    |--S. duodecimmaculata Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--S. fulgidaJ89a
    |--L. dohrniJ89a
    |--L. fraternalisJ89a
    |--L. grandipennis Fairmaire 1889F89
    `--L. nigropicta Fairmaire 1889F89
  Cynorta melanocephala Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--A. birmanica Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--A. bretinghamiJ89a
    |--A. concolor Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--A. discoidalisJ89a
    |--A. posticaJ89a
    `--A. puncticollis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--O. divisa Jacoby 1889J89a
    `--O. nigripesJ89a
    |--A. apicalis Jacoby 1889J89b
    `--A. sumatrensisJ89a
  Syoplia javanensisJ89b
    |--D. basalis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--D. indicaJ89a
    `--D. insignisJ89a
  Candezea feae Jacoby 1889J89a
  Platyxantha gracilis Jacoby 1889J89a
    |--S. collarisJ89a
    `--S. indica Jacoby 1889 [=Euphyma indica]J89a
  Pyropida sumptuosaJ89b
  Imolia nigrofasciataJ89b
  Sepharia Fairmaire 1889F89
    |--S. dilatipennis Fairmaire 1889F89
    `--S. rubricata Fairmaire 1889F89
  Semacia Fairmaire 1889F89
    `--*S. biplagiata Fairmaire 1889F89
    |--D. meyricki Blackburn 1889B89
    |--D. parallelus Blackburn 1889B89
    `--D. westermanni [incl. Rhynchostomis curculionides]B89
  Agetinus aequalisB89
  Edusoides Blackburn 1889B89
    `--*E. pulcher Blackburn 1889B89
  Chalcomela illudensB89
    |--S. undulatipennisB89
    `--S. verrucosaB89
    |--N. stirlingi Blackburn 1890B90
    `--N. viridisB90

Aades cultratus (Fabricius 1775)Z93 [=Curculio cultratusZ93, Aterpus cultratusB35; incl. C. bicristatus Fabricius 1801Z93]

Catoptes brevicornis (Broun 1904) [=Platyomidia brevicornis non C. brevicornis Sharp 1886 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)]E02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B89] Blackburn, T. 1889. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 445–482.

[B90] Blackburn, T. 1890. Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (4): 1247–1276.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H61] Hillman, W. S. 1961. The Lemnaceae, or duckweeds: a review of the descriptive and experimental literature. Botanical Review 27 (2): 221–287.

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII.—List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 147–237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 278–287.

[LL20] Lee, S., & S. Lee. 2020. Multigene phylogeny uncovers oviposition-related evolutionary history of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 145: 106707.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P66] Pascoe, F. P. 1866. Catalogue of longicorn Coleoptera collected in the island of Penang by James Lamb, Esq. Part II. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 504–536.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[TT02] Turnbow, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas. 2002. Cerambycidae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 568–601. CRC Press.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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