Phytoseioidea

Western predatory mite Galendromus occidentalis, copyright E. Beers.

Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Blattisociinae, Platyseiinae, Podocinum, Treatiinae, Proprioseiopsis, Phytoseius, Typhlodromus, Neoseiulella, Typhlodromips, Euseius, Neoseiulini, Amblyseius.

The Phytoseioidea are a diverse group of mites, best known as predators but also including parasitic, fungivorous and pollen-feeding species. The Otopheidomenidae, characterised by modified chelicerae with the fixed digit reduced and the movable digit slender and pointed, are parasitic on insects. Podocinidae have the first pair of legs greatly elongated, without terminal claws and with one or two whip-like apical setae, and are found in humus and litter habitats in tropical and warm temperate regions. The Blattisociidae are an ecologically diverse group of relatively hairy mites previously often classified in the distantly related family Ascidae.

The best studied family within the group, however, is the Phytoseiidae, many members of which are known to be free-living predators of agricultural pests though some are fungivores of pollen feeders (Lindquist et al. 2009). Phytoseiids are divided between three subfamilies with the Amblyseiinae being characterised by the absence of setae z3, s6 and JV3 (Chant & McMurtry 2003). Phytoseiinae lack the setae Z1, S2, S4 and S5 whereas members of the Typhlodrominae each possess at least one of these pairs of setae.

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Female and male dorsal shield usually entire, occasionally divided. Female sternal shield usually with three pairs of setae (metasternal setae on separate platelets or free in soft integument) but rarely with two or fewer pairs of setae; epigynal shield usually with one pair of setae, or these on soft integument flanking shield, shield free posteriorly from ventrianal or, rarely, anal shield. Male with sternitigenital shield usually separate from ventrianal shield or with line of fusion evident when connected; ventrianal shield with anterolateral margins not incised or eroded and with posterolateral margins free from dorsal shield; ventrianal shield rarely divided into ventral and anal shield. Femur I usually with 11-12 setae, including three ventral setae and 4-5 dorsal setae; tibia I with 2-3 ventral setae, 4-6 dorsal setae and 1-2 anterolateral setae; tibia III with 7-8 setae (1 1/1, 2/1 1 or 2 1/1, 2/1 1), rarely nine when pl2 present. Palptarsal claw usually two-tined (three-tined in Podocinidae). Female podospermous; sperm induction pores on sternal region between bases of coxae III-IV; each major sperm duct leading to often sclerotised spermathecal calyx, with associated vesicle, atrium and minor duct. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of sternal region, with or without spurs or modified spinelike setae on legs II and sometimes III-IV; spermatodactyl on movable cheliceral digit simple and fingerlike to variously modified, elongated, or elaborated in shape. Larva with or without pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield with 5-8 pairs of setae, setae S4-S5 usually on shield; dorsal shield of deutonymph entire, with lateral incisions or divided if divided in adult.

<==Phytoseioidea
    |--BlattisociidaeLKW09
    |    |--BlattisociinaeLKW09
    |    `--PlatyseiinaeLKW09
    |--PodocinidaeLKW09
    |    |--AndregamasusLKW09
    |    |--PodocinumH98
    |    |--Derrickia Womersley 1956H98
    |    |    `--D. setosa Womersley 1956H98
    |    `--Podocinella Evans & Hyatt 1958FH93
    |         |--P. misella (Berlese 1913) [=Podocinum misellum]FH93
    |         `--P. plumosaLKW09
    |--OtopheidomenidaeLKW09
    |    |  i. s.: Orthopteroseius sinicusK09
    |    |--TreatiinaeLKW09
    |    |--KatydiseiinaeLKW09
    |    |    |--Katydiseius nadchatramiLKW09, K09
    |    |    `--EickwortiusLKW09
    |    `--OtopheidomeninaeLKW09
    |         |--PrasadiseiusLKW09
    |         `--Otopheidomenis Treat 1955 [incl. Noctuiseius Prasad 1968]FH93
    |              |--*O. zalelestes Treat 1955KK62
    |              |--O. ascalaphae Syed & Goff 1983FH93
    |              |--O. kayosiekeri Prasad 1970FH93
    |              |--O. pholusis Prasad 1970FH93
    |              `--O. treati (Prasad 1968) [=Noctuiseius treati]FH93
    `--Phytoseiidae [Phytoseiini]TK07
         |  i. s.: Meyerius latusP01
         |         Indoseiulus riciniG01
         |         TyphloseiulusTKC07
         |           |--T. carmonaeTKC07
         |           |--T. eleonoraeTKC07
         |           |--T. eliahuswirskiiR-CT01
         |           `--T. simplexR-CT01
         |         Amblydromella Muma 1961FH93
         |           |--A. athenasR-CT01
         |           |--A. bakeri (Garman 1948) [=Seiulus bakeri]FH93
         |           |--A. caudiglans (Schuster 1959)FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--A. cryptaR-CT01
         |           |--A. rhenana (Oudemans 1905) [=Seiulus rhenanus; incl. Typhlodromus foenilis Oudemans 1930]FH93
         |           `--A. rhenanoidesR-CT01
         |         Anthoseius DeLeon 1959ET79
         |           |--*A. hebetis DeLeon 1959ET79
         |           |--A. apoxys [=Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) apoxys]ZH07
         |           |--A. bakeriZ91
         |           |--A. caucasicusH96
         |           |--A. pirianykaeZ91
         |           |--A. reckiC91
         |           |--A. rhenanusET79
         |           `--A. verrucosusZ91
         |         MumaseiusC91
         |           |--M. bakeriC91
         |           `--M. sternlichtiC91
         |         ProprioseiopsisH98
         |         Seius bdelloides Koch & Berendt 1854S93
         |         MetaseiulusP91
         |           |--M. arboreusMC97
         |           |--M. citriMC97
         |           |--M. flumenis [incl. M. mcgregori]MC97
         |           |--M. johnsoniMC97
         |           |--M. longipilusP91
         |           `--M. pomiMC97
         |         Kuzinellus kuziniKU07
         |         Galendromimus alveolaris (DeLeon 1957) [=Typhlodromus alveolaris, Chanteius alveolaris]RM07
         |         Typhloseiella isotrichaTKC07
         |         Seiulus Berlese 1887 [incl. Echinoseius Ribaga 1904]FH93
         |           |--*S. hirsutigenus (Berl. 1887) [=Seius hirsutigenus]ET79
         |           |--S. amaliaeRC91
         |           |--S. armatus (Koch 1879) [=Gamasus armatus, Seius armatus]T05
         |           |--S. eleonoraeRCT96
         |           |--S. eliahuswirskiiRCT96
         |           |--S. isotrichusRCT96
         |           `--S. simplexET79
         |         Amblydromus Muma 1961FH93
         |           `--A. smithi (Schuster 1957) [=Typhlodromus smithi]FH93
         |         Amblyscutus Muma 1961FH93
         |           `--A. grandis (Berlese 1914) [=Amblyseius grandis]FH93
         |         Amblyseiella Muma 1955FH93
         |           `--A. setosa Muma 1955FH93
         |         Athiasia Muma & Denmark 1968 [incl. Fundiseius Muma & Denmark 1971]FH93
         |           |--A. arenicola (Muma 1965) [=Iphiseius arenicolus, Fundiseius arenicolus]FH93
         |           |--A. coronata (Fox 1946) [=Borinquolaelaps coronatus, Fundiseius coronatus]FH93
         |           |--A. imbricata Muma & Denmark 1969FH93
         |           `--A. morgani (Chant 1957) [=Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) morgani; incl. Amblyseius hystrix Muma 1962]FH93
         |         Chelaseius Muma & Denmark 1968FH93
         |           |--C. floridanus (Muma 1955) [=Amblyseiopsis floridanus]FH93
         |           |--C. tundrus (Chant & Hansell 1971) [=Amblyseius tundra]FH93
         |           `--C. vicinus (Muma 1965) [=Typhlodromips vicinus]FH93
         |         Clavidromus Muma 1961FH93
         |           `--C. jackmickleyRCT96
         |         Cydnodromella Muma 1961FH93
         |           `--C. pilosa (Chant 1959) [=Typhlodromus pilosus]FH93
         |         Noeledius Muma & Denmark 1968FH93
         |           `--N. iphiformis (Muma 1962) [=Amblyseiulus iphiformis]FH93
         |         ‘Hypoaspis’ armatus Ewing 1917FH93
         |         ‘Hyletastes’ ovalis Banks 1904 [=Iphis ovalis]FH93
         |         ‘Acarus’ malus Packard 1873FH93
         |         Eharius chaerguiiMC97
         |         Transeius Chant & McMurtry 2004ATU05
         |           |--*T. bellottii (Moraes & Mesa 1988) [=Amblyseius bellottii]ATU05
         |           `--T. patellae (Karg 1982) [=Amblyseius patellae]ATU05
         |         Paraseiulella ellipticaWD91
         |         Amblydromalus limonicusCK15
         |--PhytoseiinaeCM03
         |    |--PhytoseiusMM85
         |    |--Chantia paradoxaCM03
         |    `--Platyseiella longicervicallisBW96
         |--TyphlodrominaeCM03
         |    |--TyphlodromusTK07
         |    |--GigagnathusCM03
         |    |--NeoseiulellaW97
         |    |--Papuaseius Chant & McMurtry 1994W97, H98
         |    |    `--P. dominiquae (Schicha & Gutierrez 1985) [=Typhlodromus dominiquae]H98
         |    |--Australiseiulus Muma 1961CM03, H98
         |    |    |--A. angophorae (Schicha 1981) [=Typhlodromus angophorae]H98
         |    |    |--A. australicus (Womersley 1954) [=Kampimodromus australicus, Typhlodromus australicus]H98
         |    |    `--A. goondiBW01
         |    |--ChanteiusCM03
         |    |    |  i. s.: C. contiguus [incl. Chiliseius (l. c. for Chileseius) (Chiliseius) lieni Tseng 1975]CM03
         |    |    `--C. (Evanseius Wainstein 1962)CM03
         |    |         `--‘Typhlodromus’ arboreus Chant 1957 (see below for synonymy)CM03
         |    |--Typhlodromina Muma 1961W97, H98
         |    |    |--T. conspicua (Garman 1948) [=Iphidulus conspicuus]FH93
         |    |    |--T. musero (Schicha 1987) [=Typhlodromus musero]H98
         |    |    |--T. pini (Chant 1955) [=Typhlodromus pini; incl. Typhlodromus pacificus McGregor 1956]FH93
         |    |    `--T. subtropica Muma & Denmark 1969FH93
         |    |--Paraseiulus Muma 1961CM03, ET79
         |    |    |--*P. soleiger (Ribaga 1902) [=Seiulus soleiger]ET79
         |    |    |--P. amaliaeC91
         |    |    |--P. erevenicusRCT96
         |    |    |--P. jirofticusKU07
         |    |    |--P. subsoleigerC91
         |    |    |--P. talbiiCM03
         |    |    `--‘Neoseiulus’ yugoslavicus Mijuskovic & Tomasevic 1975CM03
         |    `--Galendromus Muma 1961W97, H98 [incl. Trichoseius Wainstein 1962FH93]
         |         |--G. annectensMC97
         |         |--G. helveolus (Chant 1959) (see below for synonymy)FH93
         |         |--G. (Menaseius) herbertae (Nesbitt 1951) (see below for synonymy)FH93
         |         |--G. longipilus (Nesbitt 1951) [=Typhlodromus longipilus]FH93
         |         |--G. mcgregori (Chant 1959) [=Typhlodromus mcgregori]FH93
         |         |--G. occidentalis (Nesbitt 1951)W97, H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--G. pomi (Parrott in Parrott, Hodgkiss & Schoene 1906) [=Seius pomi]FH93
         |         `--G. porresiMC97
         `--AmblyseiinaeCM03
              |  i. s.: Macroseius Chant, Denmark & Baker 1959CM03, FH93
              |           `--M. biscutatus Chant, Denmark & Baker 1959FH93
              |         Typhlodromalus Muma 1961KA90, FH93
              |           |--T. aripoK07
              |           |--T. lailaeSG01
              |           |--T. limonicus (Garman & McGregor 1956) (see below for synonymy)FH93
              |           |--T. manihotiBW01
              |           `--T. peregrinus (Muma 1955) (see below for synonymy)FH93
              |         TyphlodromipsKA90
              |         Iphiseius Berlese 1921MM85
              |           |--*I. degeneransMM85 [=Amblyseius degeransM91]
              |           |--I. bidibidi Collyer 1964SL71
              |           |--I. dinghuensis Wu & Qian 1982MM85 [=Paraamblyseius dinghuensisH98]
              |           |--I. formosanus Ehara 1970MM85
              |           |--I. gongylusMM85
              |           |--I. modestusMM85
              |           |--I. mumai Prasad 1968MM85, FH93 [=Paraamblyseius mumaiFH93]
              |           `--I. robustusMM85
              |         Paraamblyseius Muma 1962MM85, H98
              |           |--P. formosanusBW96
              |           `--P. lecanis (Schuster & Pritchard 1963) [=Amblyseius lecanis]FH93
              |         Iphiseiodes De Leon 1966MM85, FH93
              |           `--I. quadripilis (Banks 1904) [=Seius quadripilis]FH93
              |         Asperoseius Chant 1957W99, H98
              |           |--*A. africanus Chant 1957W99
              |           `--A. australiensis Fain & Krantz 1992W99
              |         EuseiusW99
              |         Okiseius Ehara 1967W99, H98 [incl. KampimodromellusW99]
              |           |--*O. subtropicus Ehara 1967 (see below for synonymy)W99
              |           |--O. cowbay Walter 1999W99
              |           |--O. domatorum (Schicha in Schicha & O’Dowd 1993) [=Amblyseius domatorum]W99
              |           |--O. morenoi Schicha 1987H98
              |           `--O. tribulation Walter 1999W99
              |         Phytoscutus Muma 1961W99, H98
              |           |--*P. sexpilis Muma 1961W99
              |           `--P. acaridophagus (Collyer 1964) [=Iphiseius acaridophagus]H98
              |         Paraphytoseius Swirski & Shechter 1961W99, MM85 [incl. Ptenoseius Pritchard & Baker 1962BW96]
              |           |--*P. multidentatusBW96
              |           |--P. chihpenensisBW96
              |           |--P. cracentis (Corpuz & Rimando 1966) [=Ptenoseius cracentis]MM85
              |           |--P. hilli Beard & Walter 1996H98
              |           |--‘Amblyseius (*Ptenoseius)’ horriferBW96
              |           |--P. hualienensisBW96
              |           |--P. seychellensis Schicha & Corpuz-Raros 1985H98
              |           `--P. transmontanus Ueckermann & Loots 1987BW96
              |         ProprioseiusW99
              |           |--P. aberransHBR80
              |           |--P. anthurusWD91
              |           |--P. meridionalisWD91
              |           `--P. schichaiC-R02
              |--NeoseiuliniCM03
              |--Arrenoseius Wainstein 1962FH93 [ArrenoseiiniCM03]
              |    `--A. palustris (Chant 1960) [=Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) palustris]FH93
              |--AmblyseiiniA-H71
              |    |--AmblyseiusCM03
              |    |--Athiaseius Wainstein 1962A-H71
              |    `--Phytoseiulus Evans 1952A-H71, H98
              |         |--P. macropilus (Banks 1904)FH93 (see below for synonymy)
              |         |--P. longipesP01
              |         `--P. persimilis Athias-Henriot 1957H98 [incl. P. riegeliM91]
              `--Kampimodromus Nesbitt 1951FH93 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--K. aberrans (Oudemans 1930)Z91 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--K. ericinusTK07
                   |--K. keae Papadoulis & Emmanouel 1991TK07
                   |--K. langeiTK07
                   |--K. molleTK07
                   `--K. ragusaiTK07

Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster 1959)FH93 [=Typhlodromus caudiglansFH93, T. (Anthoseius) caudiglansMC97; incl. A. nodosa De Leon 1962FH93, A. timida Wainstein & Arutunjan 1968FH93]

Galendromus helveolus (Chant 1959) [=Typhlodromus helveolus; incl. T. floridanus Muma 1955, T. gratus Chant 1959]FH93

Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt 1951)W97, H98 [=Typhlodromus occidentalisH98, Metaseiulus occidentalisH98]

Galendromus (Menaseius) herbertae (Nesbitt 1951) [=Typhlodromus herbertae; incl. G. (M.) delicatus De Leon 1962, G. (M.) ruralis De Leon 1962]FH93

Kampimodromus Nesbitt 1951FH93 [incl. Indoseius Ghai & Menon 1969 non Evans 1955FH93, Paradromus Muma 1961FH93; KampimodrominiCM03]

Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans 1930)Z91 [=Typhlodromus aberransFH93, Amblyseius aberransM91; incl. A. elongatusLW89, *Kampimodromus elongatusTK07, A. vitisLW89]

*Okiseius subtropicus Ehara 1967 [=Amblyseius subtropicus, Platyseius (Neoledius) subtropicus; incl. Okiseius wui Kolodochka & Denmark 1996]W99

Phytoseiulus macropilus (Banks 1904)FH93 [=Laelaps macropilusFH93; incl. P. chanti Ehara 1966FH93, *P. speyeri Evans 1952ET79]

Typhlodromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor 1956) [=Amblyseiopsis limonicus; incl. Typhlodromus garmani Chant 1959, Amblyseius rapax De Leon 1965]FH93

Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma 1955) [=Typhlodromus peregrinus; incl. Typhlodromalus evansi Chant 1959, Typhlodromalus primulae Chant 1959, Typhlodromalus robiniae Chant 1959]FH93

‘Typhlodromus’ arboreus Chant 1957 [incl. T. anchialus Kennett 1958, Chanteius (*Evanseius) anchialus]CM03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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