Pale-billed woodpecker Campephilus guatemalensis, copyright Dominic Sherony.

Belongs within: Picidae.
Contains: Picoidini, Melanerpes, Celeus, Piculus, Colaptes, Picus, Campethera.

The Picinae, true woodpeckers, are a group of birds adapted for using their straight, pointed bills for chiseling bark and wood. They have short legs with strong claws, and their tails have stiff, pointed feathers that are used to prop the bird when it clings upright to vertical surfaces. Most species are insectivores though some feed on sap or hard fruits.

<==Picinae [Colaptini, Dendrodrocopinae, Dryocopini, Hemicircini, Picini, Psilorhinae]B94
    |--+--Nesoctites Hargitt 1890BKB15, B94 [Nesoctitini]
    |  |    `--N. micromegasBKB15
    |  `--Hemicircus Swainson 1837BKB15, B94
    |       |--H. canenteBKB15
    |       `--H. concretusJT12
       |  |  `--+--MelanerpesBKB15
       |  |     `--+--‘Melanerpes’ striatusBKB15
       |  |        `--Sphyrapicus Baird 1858BKB15, S05
       |  |             |--S. thyroideusBKB15
       |  |             `--+--S. varius (Linné 1766)JT12, S05 [=Picus variusS05, P. (Dendrocopus) variusS05, Sphyropicus variusS05]
       |  |                `--+--S. nuchalisJT12
       |  |                   `--S. ruberJT12 [incl. S. daggettiS70]
       |  `--+--+--BlythipicusBKB15
       |     |  |    |--B. pyrrhotisBKB15
       |     |  |    |    |--B. p. pyrrhotisVP89
       |     |  |    |    `--B. p. sinensisVP89
       |     |  |    `--B. rubiginosusBKB15
       |     |  `--+--Reinwardtipicus validusBKB15
       |     |     `--Chrysocolaptes Blyth 1843BKB15, B94 [Chrysocolaptini]
       |     |          |--C. festivusJT12
       |     |          |--C. guttacristatusRN72
       |     |          |--C. lucidusBKB15
       |     |          `--C. sultaneus [incl. C. strictus]S89
       |     `--Campephilus Gray 1840BKB15, B94 [Campephilini]
       |          |  i. s.: C. albirostrisSS66
       |          |         C. robustusJT12
       |          |--C. haematogasterBKB15
       |          `--+--+--C. imperialisBKB15
       |             |  `--C. principalisBKB15
       |             |       |--C. p. principalisFP64
       |             |       `--C. p. bairdiiFP64
       |             `--+--C. magellanicusBKB15
       |                `--+--+--C. leucopogonBKB15
       |                   |  `--C. rubricollisBKB15
       |                   `--+--C. pollensBKB15
       |                      `--+--C. guatemalensisBKB15
       |                         `--+--C. gayaquilensisBKB15
       |                            `--C. melanoleucosBKB15
          |  |  `--+--PiculusBKB15
          |  |     `--ColaptesBKB15
          |  `--Dryocopus Boie 1826BKB15, B94
          |       |  i. s.: D. galeatusJT12
          |       |         D. hodgeiJT12
          |       |         D. javensisJT12
          |       |           |--D. j. javensisI92
          |       |           `--D. j. richardsi Tristram 1879I92
          |       |         D. schulziJT12
          |       |--+--D. lineatusBKB15
          |       |  |    |--D. l. lineatusE52
          |       |  |    `--D. l. nuperusE52
          |       |  `--D. pileatusBKB15
          |       `--+--D. martius (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, I92
          |          `--MulleripicusBKB15
          |               |--M. funebrisBKB15
          |               `--M. pulverulentusJT12
             |  `--+--CampetheraBKB15
             |     `--+--‘Campethera’ cailliautiiBKB15
             |        `--GeocolaptesBKB15
             |             |--G. aratorS66
             |             `--G. olivaceusBKB15
             `--+--+--‘Celeus’ brachyurusBKB15
                |  `--Meiglyptes Swainson 1837BKB15, B94 [Meiglyptini]
                |       |--M. jugularisJT12
                |       |--M. tristisBKB15
                |       `--M. tukkiBKB15
                   |    |--G. grantiaBKB15
                   |    `--G. viridisJT12
                   `--Dinopium Rafinesque 1814BKB15, B94 [incl. Tiga Kaup 1836B94; Tigini]
                        |--D. benghalenseJT12
                        |--‘Tiga’ intermediaS89
                        |--D. javanenseBKB15 [=T. javanensisS89]
                        |--D. rafflesiiJT12
                        `--D. shoriiBKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. Blandford Press: London.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21–23.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S70] Short, L. L. 1970. A reply to Uzzell and Ashmole. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 199–202.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

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