White banjine Pimelea ligustrina ssp. ciliata, photographed by David Osborne.

Belongs within: Thymelaeaceae.

Pimelea, the riceflowers, is a genus of herbs, shrubs and small trees found in Australia and New Zealand. At least some species are known to be toxic to livestock and it is possible that all are (Harden 1990). The southeastern Australian P. axiflora is distinguished by its axillary rather than terminal inflorescences (Harden 1990).

Characters (from Harden 1990): Herbs, shrubs or small trees, often with very tough bark; leaves mostly opposite or subopposite, usually paler on lower surface; petiole commonly very short. Inflorescence mostly a terminal raceme, sometimes on short lateral branches, spike-like, often condensed into heads or clusters, with or without bracts forming an involucre. Flowers mostly bisexual, sometimes unisexual; pedicel usually short. Hypanthium tubular with 4 usually spreading sepal lobes. Petals absent. Stamens 2, inserted in the hypanthium and mostly exceeding it. Ovary with 2 carpels, but only 1 functional with a solitary ovule; style lateral. Fruit mostly a 1-seeded nut or rarely drupaceous; fruit usually more or less narrow-ovoid, frequently glabrous except for a few hairs at the apex, mostly green or brown at maturity, sometimes red, rarely black.

<==Pimelea Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788A61
|--P. alpinaH90
|--P. angustifoliaG04
|--P. arenaria Cunn. 1833A61 [=Gymnococca arenaria Fisch. & Mey. 1845A61; incl. Passerina villosaC06, Pimelea villosaC06]
|--P. argenteaGK00
|--P. aridula Ckn. 1921 (see below for synonymy)A61
|--P. axifloraH90
| |--P. a. ssp. axifloraH90
| |--P. a. ssp. alpina nec P. alpina nec P. prostrata var. alpina Cheeseman 1906H90
| `--P. a. ssp. pubescensH90
|--P. bifloraH90
|--P. bracteataH90 [incl. P. cracens ssp. glabraGK00, P. ligustrina var. glabraH90]
|--P. buxifolia Hooker 1864 [incl. P. montana Colenso 1899, P. stylosa Colenso 1888, P. subsimilis Colenso 1896]A61
|--P. ciliolaris [=P. octophylla ssp. ciliolaris]H90
|--P. concinna Allan 1961A61
|--P. cracensGK00
|--P. crosby-smithiana Petrie 1912A61
|--P. curvifloraH90
| |--P. c. var. curvifloraH90
| |--P. c. var. acutaH90
| |--P. c. var. divergensH90
| |--P. c. var. gracilisH90
| |--P. c. var. sericea non P. lyallii var. sericea Cheesem. 1906H90
| `--P. c. var. subglabrataH90
|--P. elongataH90
|--P. filamentosa Rudge 1811R11
|--P. flavaH90
| |--P. f. ssp. flavaH90
| `--P. f. ssp. dichotoma non P. dichotoma Colenso 1890H90
|--P. gilgianaK90
|--P. glaucaH90
|--P. gnidia (Forster & Forster) Willd. 1797 (see below for synonymy)A61
|--P. haastii Kirk 1880 (n. d.)A61
|--P. humilisH90
|--P. imbricataGK00
| |--P. i. var. imbricataGK00
| |--P. i. var. gracillimaGK00
| |--P. i. var. majorGK00
| `--P. i. var. piligeraGK00
|--P. lanataGK00
|--P. latifolia [incl. P. altior var. longifolia non P. longifolia Sol. ex Wiks. 1818]H90
| |--P. l. ssp. latifoliaH90
| |--P. l. ssp. altiorH90
| |--P. l. ssp. elliptifoliaH90
| `--P. l. ssp. hirsutaH90
|--P. lehmannianaGK00
|--P. ligustrinaB00
| |--P. l. ssp. ligustrinaH90
| |--P. l. ssp. ciliataH90
| `--P. l. ssp. hypericinaH90
|--P. linifoliaB00
| |--P. l. ssp. linifoliaH90
| |--P. l. ssp. caesiaH90
| |--P. l. ssp. collinaH90 [incl. P. cunninghamiiB96]
| `--P. l. ssp. linoidesH90
|--P. longifolia Sol. ex Wiks. 1818A61 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. lyallii Hook. f. 1854A61
|--P. micrantha [=P. curviflora var. micrantha]H90
|--P. microcephalaKM08
|--P. neo-anglicaH90
|--P. paucifloraH90
|--P. penicillarisH90
|--P. petrophilaH90
|--P. polycephala Colenso 1890 (n. d.)A61
|--P. poppelwellii Petrie 1917A61
|--P. preissiiGK00
|--P. prostrata (Forster & Forster) Willd. 1797A61 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. pseudo-lyallii Allan 1961A61
|--P. roseaGK00
|--P. sericeo-villosa Hook. f. 1864A61
|--P. sericostachyaC16
|--P. serpyllifoliaH90
|--P. simplexH90
| |--P. s. ssp. simplexH90
| `--P. s. ssp. continuaH90
|--P. spicataH90
|--P. strictaB00
|--P. strigosaH90
|--P. suaveolensOS04
|--P. sulphureaOS04
|--P. suteri Kirk 1894A61
|--P. sylvestrisGK00
|--P. tomentosa (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917A61 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. traversii Hook. f. 1864A61
|--P. treyvaudiiH90
|--P. trichostachyaH90
|--P. umbraticaH90
`--P. venosaH90

Pimelea aridula Ckn. 1921 [incl. P. dasyantha Colenso 1896, P. aridula var. linearis Cheeseman 1925, P. lyallii var. sericea Cheesem. 1906]A61

Pimelea gnidia (Forster & Forster) Willd. 1797 [=Banksia gnidia Forster & Forster 1776, Cookia gnidia Gmel. 1791, Passerina gnidia Forst. f. 1786; incl. Pimelea gnidia var. menziesii Hook. f. 1854, Pi. gnidia var. pulchella Cheeseman 1906]A61

Pimelea longifolia Sol. ex Wiks. 1818A61 [=Passerina longifolia Thunb. 1792A61; incl. Pi. angulata Colenso 1886A61, Pi. congestaC06, Pi. lanceolata Colenso 1890A61, Pi. longifolia var. lanceolata (Colenso) Cheesem. 1906A61, Pi. similis Colenso 1890A61]

Pimelea prostrata (Forster & Forster) Willd. 1797A61 [=Banksia prostrata Forster & Forster 1776A61, Cookia prostrata Gmel. 1791A61, Passerina prostrata Forst. f. 1786A61; incl. Pimelea prostrata var. alpina Cheeseman 1906 non P. alpinaA61, Pi. bicolor Colenso 1890A61, Pi. prostrata var. erecta Cheeseman 1906A61, Pi. heterophylla Colenso 1890A61, Pi. laevigata Gaertn. 1788A61, Gymnococca microcarpa Fisch. & Mey. 1845C06, Pi. microphylla Col. 1890A61, Pi. laevigata var. monticola Petrie 1926A61, Pi. prostrata f. parvifoliaA61, Pi. prostrata var. quadrifaria Hook. 1844A61, Pi. laevigata var. repens Cheeseman 1906A61, Pi. prostrata var. repens Hook. f. 1854A61, Pi. rugulosa Colenso 1889A61, Pi. urvilleana Rich. 1832A61, Pi. prostrata var. urvilleana (Rich.) Meissn. in DC. 1857A61]

Pimelea tomentosa (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917A61 [=Banksia tomentosa Forster & Forster 1776A61; incl. Pi. axillaris Banks & Soland. ex Wikstr. 1818C06, Pi. dichotoma Colenso 1890A61, Passerina pilosa Linn. f. 1781A61, Pi. pilosa Willd. 1797A61, Pi. virgata Vahl 1805A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[R11] Rudge, E. 1811. A description of several species of plants from New Holland. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 10: 283–303.

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