African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, from Marius Burger.

Belongs within: Anura.

The Pipoidea are a clade of frogs with distinctive tadpoles found the Neotropical and Afrotropical realms (Frost et al. 2006).

Synapomorphies (from Frost et al. 2006): Frontoparietal fontanelle closed by juxtaposition of frontoparietal bones; hyoglossal sinus partially closed by ceratohyals; taenia tecti medialis absent; taenia tecti transversum absent; mentomeckelian bones absent; lateral alae of parasphenoid absent; frontoparietals fused into azygous element; otic capsule greatly enlarged; vertebrae opisthocoelous. Tadpole with eye position lateral; lacking keratinised jaw sheaths and keratodonts; opercular canal absent, spiracle paired; m. constrictor branchialis I absent; m. levator mandibulae internus anterior; m. levator mandibulae longus originating exclusively from arcus suborcularis; posterolateral projections of crista parotica expansive flat chondrifications; arcus subocularis with distinct processus lateralis posterior projecting laterally from posterior palatoquadrate; articulation of cartilago labialis superior with cornu trabeculae fused into rostral plate; forearm erupting out of limb pouch outside peribranchial space.

<==Pipoidea [Pipoidia, Xenoanura]FB17
| i. s.: VulcanobatrachusDMH16
| AvitabatrachusDMH16
|--Rhinophrynidae [Rhinophrynina]PW11
| |--Eorhinophrynus septentrionalis Hecht 1959RR00
| |--Rhadinosteus parvus Henrici 1998R00
| |--Chelomophrynus bayi Henrici 1991RR00
| `--Rhinophrynus Duméril & Bibron 1841FG06
| |--R. canadensis Holman 1963RR00
| `--R. dorsalis Dumeril & Bibron 1841DE08
| |--Neusibatrachus wilferti Seiffert 1972M93
| |--Pliobatrachus langhae Fejérváry 1917 [incl. Bufo tarloi, P. tarloi]M93
| |--Messelobatrachus tobieniRR00
| |--Albionbatrachus wightensis Meszoely et al. 1984RR00
| |--Lithobatrachus europaeus (Noble 1928) [=Hyla europaea]RR00
| `--Palaeobatrachus Tschudi 1839R00
| |--P. diluvianus (Goldfuss 1831) [=Rana diluviana; incl. P. goldfussi]RR00
| |--‘Protopelobates’ gracilis (Bieber 1880)RR00
| |--P. grandipes (Giebel 1851) (see below for synonymy)RR00
| |--‘Rana’ hauffiana Fraas 1909RR00
| |--P. laubei (Bieber 1880)RR00
| |--P. luedecki Wolterstorff 1886RR00
| |--P. novotnyi Špinar 1972RR00
| |--P. occidentalisR00
| |--P. rostae Špinar 1972RR00
| `--P. vicetinus (Peters 1877) [=Probatrachus vicetinus, Pa. vicentinus (l. c.)]RR00
`--Pipidae [Pipinae, Piprina]PW11
| i. s.: Asterodactylus Wagler 1927 [=Astrodactylus Hogg 1838; Astrodactylidae]FG06
| Pachycentra taquetiFB17
| Shomronella jordanica Estes, Špinar & Nevo 1978M93
| Thoraciliacus rostriceps Nevo 1968R00
| CordicephalusR00
| |--C. gracilis Nevo 1968R00
| `--C. longicostatus Nevo 1968R00
| Saltenia ibanezi Reig 1959R00
| Eoxenopoides [Eoxenopoididae]RR00
| `--E. reuningi Haughton 1931RR00
| ShelaniaB00
| |--*S. pascualiB00
| `--S. laurentiB00
|--Pipa Laurenti 1768PW11, FG06 [=Pipra (l. c.) non Linnaeus 1764FG06]
| | i. s.: P. arrabaliT93
| | P. myersiFG06
| | P. snethlageaeT93
| |--P. carvalhoiPW11
| `--+--P. parvaPW11
| `--P. pipaPW11
`--+--+--Pachybatrachus taqueti Báez & Rage 1998R00
| |--Pseudhymenochirus Chabanaud 1920FG06
| | `--P. merliniKF69
| `--Hymenochirus Boulenger 1896PW11, FG06 [Hymenochiridae]
| `--H. boettgeriPW11
|--Dactylethra Cuvier 1829FG06
|--Silurana Gray 1864 [Siluraninae]FG06
| |--S. epitropicalis [=Xenopus epitropicalis]B00
| |--S. romeri [=Xenopus romeri]B00
| `--S. tropicalis [=Xenopus tropicalis]B00
`--Xenopus Wagler 1827PW11, FG06 [Xenopoda]
| i. s.: X. kobeliFB17
| X. stromeri Ahl 1926RR00
| X. (Libycus Špinar 1980)RR00
| `--X. (*L.) hasaunus Špinar 1980RR00
|--+--X. borealisPW11
| `--X. muelleriPW11
`--+--X. cliviiPW11
`--+--+--X. vestitusPW11
| `--+--X. gilliPW11
| `--+--X. laevisPW11
| `--+--X. petersiiPW11
| `--X. victorianusPW11
`--+--+--X. andreiPW11
| `--X. boumbaensisPW11
|--+--X. fraseriPW11
| `--X. pygmaeusPW11
`--+--X. witteiPW11
`--+--X. largeniPW11
`--+--X. ruwenzoriensisPW11
`--+--X. amietiPW11
`--X. longipesPW11

Palaeobatrachus grandipes (Giebel 1851) [incl. Quinquevertebron germanicum Kuhn 1941, Pa. gigas, Pelobatinopsis hinschei Kuhn 1941]RR00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Báez, A. M. 2000. Tertiary anurans from South America. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1388–1401. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[DE08] Doughty, P., & D. Edwards. 2008. A new species of Arenophryne (Anura: Myobatrachidae) from the central coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 121–131.

[DMH16] Duellman, W. E., A. B. Marion & S. B. Hedges. 2016. Phylogenetics, classification, and biogeography of the treefrogs (Amphibia: Anura: Arboranae). Zootaxa 4104 (1): 1–109.

[FB17] Feng, Y.-J., D. C. Blackburn, D. Liang, D. M. Hillis, D. B. Wake, D. C. Cannatella & P. Zhang. 2017. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (29): E5864–E5870.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[KF69] Kluge, A. G., & J. S. Farris. 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 1–32.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[R00] Roček, Z. 2000. Mesozoic anurans. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1295–1331. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[RR00] Roček, Z., & J.-C. Rage 2000. Tertiary Anura of Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and Australia. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1332–1387. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[T93] Trueb, L. 1993. Patterns of cranial diversity among the Lissamphibia. In: Hanken, J., & B. K. Hall (eds) 1993. The Skull vol. 2. Patterns of Structural and Systematic Diversity pp. 255–343. The University of Chicago Press.

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