Pirenidae

 Ovipositing female of Macroglenes penetrans, from Saskatoon Research Centre.

Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.
Contains: Gastrancistrus.

The Pireninae are a group of wasps parasitic on midges of the Cecidomyiidae (Bouček 1988). In the case of Macroglenes, the preferred hosts are on grasses, and this genus has been widely introduced as a biological control for cereal pests.

<==Pirenidae [Eriaporidae]
    |--EriaporinaeBM22
    |    |--Promuscidea Girault 1917G17a (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*P. unfasciativentris Girault 1917G17a [incl. *Mesopirene fasciativentrisB88]
    |    |    |--*Eurymyiocnema’ aphelinoidesH83
    |    |    |--P. comperellaHB13
    |    |    `--P. laticeps [=*Eriaporus laticeps]H83
    |    `--Eunotiscus Compere 1928BM22, H83
    |         `--*E. gahaniH83
    |--EuryischiinaeBM22
    |    |--Euryischia Riley 1889H83
    |    |    |--*E. lestophoniH83
    |    |    |--E. melancholica Girault 1913GM79
    |    |    |--E. psyllae Girault 1930G30
    |    |    |--E. sumneri Girault 1913GM79
    |    |    `--E. vertexalis Girault 1930G30
    |    |--Euryischomyia Girault 1914MH11, GM79
    |    |    `--*E. washingtoniH83
    |    `--Myiocnema Ashmead 1900BM22, H83
    |         `--*M. compereiH83
    |--Cecidellis Hanson 2005 [Cecidellinae]BM22
    |--Pireninae [Pireniani, Pirenina, Pireninae, Pirenini]B88
    |    |--Velepirene Bouček 1988B88
    |    |    `--*V. gressitti Bouček 1988B88
    |    |--Parasyntomocera Girault 1917G17b
    |    |    `--*P. hillmeadia Girault 1917G17b
    |    |--Amuscidea Girault 1913 [incl. Erotolepsiopus Girault 1915]B88
    |    |    |--*A. nigripes Girault 1913B88
    |    |    `--A. subsolana (Girault 1915) [=*Erotolepsiopus subsolanus]B88
    |    |--Zebe La Salle 2005LS05
    |    |    `--*Z. cornutus La Salle 2005LS05
    |    |--Petipirene Bouček 1988MH11, B88
    |    |    `--*P. eximia Bouček 1988B88
    |    |--Macroglenes Westwood 1832MH11, B88 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*M. oculatusB88
    |    |    |--M. clypeatus (Girault 1925) [=Phocion clypeatus]B88
    |    |    |--M. congener (Girault 1925) [=Phocion congener]B88
    |    |    |--M. gramineusHB13
    |    |    |--M. ipswichi (Girault 1925) [=*Phocion ipswichi, Pirene ipswichi]B88
    |    |    |--M. penetransB88
    |    |    `--M. varicornisBM22 [=*Pirene varicornisB88]
    |    |--EcrizotomorphaBM22
    |    |--KeesiaBM22
    |    |--LasalleaBM22
    |    |--PapuaglenesBM22
    |    `--WatshamiaBM22
    `--Tridyminae [Tridymina, Trydymini]BM22
         |--SpathopusBM22
         |--CalyconotiscusBM22
         |--EcrizotesBM22
         |--Epiterobia Girault 1914BM22, B88 [incl. Neroptrocerus Girault 1915B88]
         |    |--*E. reticulatithorax Girault 1914B88
         |    |--E. sanguinipes Girault 1938B88
         |    `--E. subatra (Girault 1915) [=*Neroptrocerus subater]B88
         |--MelancistrusBM22
         |--OxyglyptaBM22
         |--Premiscogaster Girault 1933BM22, B88
         |    |--*P. australia (Girault 1917) [=Miscogaster australia]B88
         |    `--P. punctatifascies (Girault 1922) [=Schizonotus punctatifascies, S. punctatifacies]B88
         |--Sirovena Bouček 1988BM22, B88
         |    |--*S. stigma Bouček 1988B88
         |    `--S. costallifera Li, Xiao & Huang 2013LXH13
         |--SpinancistrusBM22
         `--GastrancistrusMH11

Macroglenes Westwood 1832MH11, B88 [incl. Corynocere Nees 1834B88, Phocion Girault 1925B88, Pirene Haliday 1833B88, Pirenisca Ghesquière 1946B88]

Promuscidea Girault 1917G17a [incl. Eriaporus Waterston 1917H83, Eurymyiocnema Compere 1947H83, Mesopirene Girault 1919B88]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BM22] Burks, R., M.-D. Mitroiu, L. Fusu, J. M. Heraty, P. Janšta, S. Heydon, N. D.-S. Papilloud, R. S. Peters, E. V. Tselikh, J. B. Woolley, S. van Noort, H. Baur, A. Cruaud, C. Darling, M. Haas, P. Hanson, L. Krogmann & J.-Y. Rasplus. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach towards a monophyletic Pteromalidae and reclassification of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94: 13–88.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59–71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. Chalcidoidea nova Marilandensis. II. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 114–115).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278–279).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[H83] Hayat, M. 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology 8: 63–102.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[LS05] La Salle, J. 2005. Zebe cornutus gen. et sp. nov., a new Pireninae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with 4-segmented tarsi and a mesoscutal horn. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemoslovenicae 69: 193–197.

[LXH13] Li, Z., H. Xiao & D.-W. Huang. 2013. Sirovena Bouček (Pteromalidae: Pireninae), a new member of the fig wasp community associated with Ficus microcarpa (Moraceae). Zootaxa 3619 (5): 581–588.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

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