Appleberry Billardiera scandens, copyright Harry Rose.

Belongs within: Apiales.
Contains: Pittosporum.

The Pittosporaceae are a group of trees, shrubs and lianes widespread in the Old World, members of which produce fruits with seeds covered in a sticky pulp. Representative include Billardiera, appleberries or bluebell creepers, a genus of subshrubs or lianas producing more or less succulent berries.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Trees, shrubs or lianes with alternate or whorled simple exstipulate leaves. Flowers pentamerous, usually perfect, regular, solitary or in cymes or panicles; sepals free or connate near base, imbricate; petals imbricate, clawed; stamens alternating with petals; anthers usually introrse, opening by pores or slits. Ovary superior, 2–5-loculed; placentae parietal or axile, ovules numerous. Fruit usually a loculicidal capsule; seeds usually immersed in viscid pulp, embryo minute, endosperm copious.

<==Pittosporaceae [Pittosporeae]
    |--+--Hymenosporum flavumDK-DW00
    |  |--PittosporumDK-DW00
    |  `--BursariaDK-DW00
    |       |--B. incanaB00
    |       |--B. occidentalisG04a
    |       `--B. spinosaM08
    `--+--Sollya heterophyllaDK-DW00, H93 [incl. S. fusiformisH93]
            |--B. bicolorK90
            |    |--B. b. var. bicolorK90
            |    `--B. b. var. lineataK90
            |--B. coriaceaG04b
            |--B. drummondianaGK00
            |--B. erubescensGK00
            |--B. fusiformisCFH05
            |--B. longifloraK03
            |--B. parvifloraGK00
            |--B. scandensC08
            |--B. sericeaOS04
            `--B. variifoliaRL05
Pittosporaceae incertae sedis:
    |--C. multiflorusB96
    `--C. pauciflorusK03
    |--C. filifoliaG04a
    `--C. preissianaK90
  Bentleya diminutaG04b
  Billardierites longistylus Caspary 1881CBH93
    |--A. resinosaLK14
    `--A. rhombifoliaM08
    |--M. bicolorOS04
    |--M. candidusGK00
    |--M. erubescensOS04
    `--M. procumbensB96
  Cheiranthus linearisB96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[CFH05] Cochrane, J. A., J. A. Friend & S. J. E. Hill. 2005. Endozoochory and the Australian bluebell: comsumption of Billardiera fusiformis (Labill.) Payer (Pittosporaceae) seeds by three mammal species at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 191–196.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DK-DW00] Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie & M. F. Watson. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apioideae. American Journal of Botany 87 (2): 273–292.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

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