Snapdragon Antirrhinum majus, copyright Dinesh Valke.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Gratioleae, Cheloneae, Callitriche, Veroniceae, Plantago.

The Plantaginaceae are a clade of flowering plants identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Olmstead et al. 2001). Members of this clade are morphologically diverse, with many having been previously classified in the Scrophulariaceae rather than with the wind-pollinated genus Plantago. They include the snapdragons Antirrhinum, a genus of herbs found in western North America and the western Mediterranean, whose often cleistogamous flowers commonly have the lower lip base swollen and covering the mouth. The foxgloves of the genus Digitalis are a western Palaearctic group of erect herbs with bell-shaped, generally pink or white flowers. The mare’s-tail Hippuris vulgaris is an emergent aquatic, wind-pollinated herb found in temperate and cool regions of the world (Hickman 1993). Globularia, the globe daisies, is a western Palaearctic genus of mat-forming herbs and subshrubs that produce flowers in dense capitula held on an erect stem. Angelonia is a Neotropical genus of herbs and shrubs bearing flowers with an anteriorly sacciform corolla and a small horn at the base of the anterior lobes (Liogier 1995).

<==Plantaginaceae [Plantaginales, Veronicaceae]
    |  `--Angelonia Humboldt & Bonpland 1812OP01, L95 [Angelonieae]
    |       |--A. floribundaT-W89
    |       |--A. pubescensOP01
    |       `--A. salicariifolia H. & B. 1812L95
          |  |  `--Hippuris [Hippuridaceae]OP01
          |  |       `--H. vulgarisOP01
          |  `--+--Globularieae [Globulariaceae]OP01
          |     |    |--PoskeaOP01
          |     |    `--GlobulariaOP01
          |     |         |--G. alypumD17
          |     |         |--G. cordifoliaOP01
          |     |         |--G. nudicaulisC55a
          |     |         `--G. punctataH91
          |     `--+--+--Hemiphragma [Hemiphragmieae]OP01
          |        |  |    `--H. heterophyllumOP01
          |        |  `--+--VeroniceaeOP01
          |        |     `--PlantagineaeC06
          |        |          |--PlantagoOP01
          |        |          |--Littorella unifloraC06, V72
          |        |          `--BougueriaC06
          |        `--Digitalis [Digitalideae]OP01
          |             |--D. ambiguaD37
          |             |--D. grandifloraOP01
          |             |--D. lanataD37
          |             |--D. luteaD37
          |             |--D. mertonensisD37
          |             |--D. micranthaD37
          |             `--D. purpureaOP01
          `--Antirrhinum Linnaeus 1753OP01, KSM06 [Antirrhinaceae, Antirrhineae, Antirrhinoideae]
               |--A. cornutumH93
               |--A. coulterianumH93
               |--A. cyathiferumH93
               |--A. elatineH64
               |--A. filipesH93
               |--A. kelloggiiH93
               |--A. kingiiH93
               |--A. leptaleum [=A. cornutum var. leptaleum]H93
               |--A. linariaH64
               |--A. majusOP01
               |--A. minusH64
               |--A. molleD37
               |--A. multiflorum [incl. A. glandulosum]H93
               |--A. nuttallianumH93
               |    |--A. n. ssp. nuttallianumH93
               |    `--A. n. ssp. subsessileH93
               |--A. orontiumC55b
               |--A. ovatumH93
               |--A. ramosissimumD17
               |--A. rhinanthoides [=A. majus × A. molle]D37
               |--A. subcordatumH93
               |--A. vexillo-calyculatumH93
               |    |--A. v. ssp. vexillo-calyculatumH93
               |    |--A. v. ssp. breweriH93
               |    `--A. v. ssp. intermediumH93
               `--A. virgaH93
Plantaginaceae incertae sedis:
    |--L. australisLK14
    |--L. browniiLK14
    |--L. chinensisLK14
    |--L. fragransLK14
    |--L. heterophyllaVB02
    |--L. rugosaM72
    `--L. serrataC55a
  Sibthorpia repens [incl. Veronica rotundifolia Ruiz & Pav. 1798]AM-O04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AM-O04] Albach, D. C., M. M. Martínez-Ortega, M. A. Fischer & M. W. Chase. 2004. A new classification of the tribe Veroniceae—problems and a possible solution. Taxon 53 (2): 429–452.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H64] Hogg, J. 1864. List of rarer phanerogamous plants discovered in the south-east of Durham since 1829. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 96.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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