Platygastroidea

Scelio sp., copyright Edward Trammel.

Belongs within: Proctotrupomorpha.
Contains: Baeini, Telenominae, Platygastrinae.

The Platygastroidea are a clade of small wasps that begin life as parasitoids of insect and spider eggs though some may not emerge from the host until it has reached a more advanced stage of development. They are characterised by a unique telescoping ovipositor mechanism, and the presence of basiconic sensilla (presumably secretory) on the ventral surface of the first flagellomeres of the antennal clavus (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The venation of the wings is reduced, particularly in the Platygastrinae whose fore wings have only a knobbed submarginal vein or lack veins entirely. Subfamilies outside the Platygastrinae were previously united in the family Scelionidae before molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the latter to represent a paraphyletic grouping. Basal subgroups of the Platygastroidea are also characterised by teleaform larvae (Naumann 1991).

Subgroups of the Platygastridae include the Teleasinae, characterised by a sharp lateral margin on the metasoma and lateral ocelli closer to the central ocellus than to the compound eyes. Larvae of Teleasinae parasitise eggs of Carabidae. Sharp metasomal margins are also present in Scelioninae which, however, usually have lateral ocelli closer to the compound eyes. The Thoronini are parasites of semi-aquatic Heteroptera such as Nepidae and Gerridae. The relatively large species of Scelio attack Acrididae (Naumann 1991).

Characters (from Naumann 1991, for Platygasteroidea): Parasites of eggs or larvae. Antennal sockets and clypeus very narrowly separated or contiguous. Scape relatively long (length more than 2.5 times width). Pronotum virtually continuous behind fore coxae; prepectus fused to posterior of pronotum and represented by posterior pronotal inflection. Mesoscutum without median sulcus. Axillae variable. Fore wing without pterostigma; costal cell present or absent and radial cell open posteriorly or absent. M+CuA absent from hind wing. Suture present between T2 and S2; metasomal spiracles absent. Ovipositor at rest concealed within metasoma, can be protruded by increase in hydrostatic pressure within metasoma. T9 divided into anterior and posterior parts with anterior part concealed and attached to base of tube-like ovipositor and posterior part either exposed and bearing cerci or membranous and concealed. First instar larvae teleaform, hymenopteriform or cyclopoid.

Platygastroidea [Scelionoidea]BS23
|--+--ScelionidaeBS23
| | |--ScelioninaeBS23
| | | | i. s.: Paridris minatorBS23
| | | |--Scelio [Scelionini]N91
| | | | |--S. duris Walker 1839W39
| | | | |--S. gobar Walker 1839W39
| | | | |--S. rugulosusG20
| | | | |--S. shakespearei Girault 1926G26b
| | | | `--S. walkeriA71
| | | `--BaeiniA95
| | `--TelenominaeBS23
| `--SparasionidaeBS23
| |--Sparasion Latreille 1802L02
| | |--*S. cephalotesL02
| | |--S. cornutumR26
| | |--S. cullarisBS23
| | `--S. frontaleG20
| `--Archaeoteleia melleaBS23
`--+--PlatygastridaeBS23
| | i. s.: SceliomorphaHB13
| | ChromateleiaHB13
| | BrachinostemmaR70
| | ‘Coelocyba’ musila Fernando 1957B88
| | HoplogryonA71
| | OxyteliaR70
| | HadronotusN91
| | |--H. bicolor Ashmead 1894GM79
| | |--H. goethei Girault 1932G32
| | `--H. variocellus Girault 1926G26a
| | ProsapegusR70
| | HoploteleiaR70
| | PsilanteridiniN91
| | Doddiella [Doddiellini]N91
| | Neoscelio [Neoscelionini]N91
| | Cremastobaeus [Cremastobaeini]N91
| | Ladora [Aradophagini]N91
| | Platyscelio [Platyscelionini]N91
| | Mantibaria [Mantibariini]N91
| | |--M. anomala Kirby 1900N91, JG19
| | |--M. manticida [=Rielia manticida]RD77
| | `--M. seefelderiana de Stephani-Perez 1891JG19
| | EmbidobiiniN91
| | |--EmbidobiaR00
| | `--Palaeogryon muesebecki Masner 1969R00, P92
| | ThoroniniN91
| | |--TiphodytesN91
| | `--MicrothoronN91
| | BaryconiniN91
| | |--Baryconus fulleriP92
| | |--BracalbaN91
| | `--Oxyscelio caesitas Burks 2013N91, JG19
| | EumicrosomaRD77
| | LepidoscelioRD77
| | Proteroscelio antennalis Brues 1937P92
| | Cenomanoscelio pulcher Schlüter 1978P92
| | AneurobaeusP92
| | ArchaeoscelioP92
| | BrachyscelioP92
| | CeratobaeoidesP92
| | CeratoteleiaP92
| | ChromoteleiaP92
| | DissolcusP92
| | |--D. atriscapus Girault 1926G26c
| | `--D. beenleighi Girault 1932G32
| | ElectroteleiaP92
| | HadronotoidesP92
| | MicrotelenomusP92
| | ProplatyscelioP92
| | PseudobaeusP92
| | |--P. dugandani Girault 1928G28
| | |--P. glorius Girault 1926G26c
| | `--P. timorensis Girault 1932G32
| | SembilanoceraP92
| | TrachelopteronP92
| | UroteleiaP92
| |--TeleasinaeN91
| | |--Xenomerus [Xenomerini]N91
| | `--TeleasiniN91
| | |--TrimorusN91
| | `--TeleasMS01
| | |--T. brevicornisR26
| | `--T. clavicornisMS01 [=Scelio (Teleas) clavicornisG20]
| `--PlatygastrinaeMH11
`--+--Neuroscelio [Neuroscelionidae]BS23
| `--N. doddiBS23
`--+--NixoniaMH11 [NixoniidaeBS23]
| `--N. watshamiMH11
`--Janzenella [Janzenellidae]BS23
`--J. innuptaBS23

Platygastroidea incertae sedis:
GryoniniN91
|--Gryon atriscapusMH11, NS91
`--EncyrtoscelioN91
CalliscelioniniN91
|--MacroteleiaN91
|--ProbaryconusN91
|--CalliscelioN91
|--LispoteleiaN91
|--NeoparidrisN91
|--CramaN91
`--JarabambiusN91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A95] Austin, A. D. 1995. New species of baeine parasitoids of spider eggs (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 253–263.

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Hymenoptera minutae nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 196).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197–198).

[G26c] Girault, A. A. 1926c. New pests from Australia. II. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 200–202).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some new hexapods stolen from authority. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 221–224).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293–298).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[W39] Walker, F. 1839. Monographia Chalciditum vol. 2. Species collected by C. Darwin, Esq. Hyppolite Baillière: London.

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