Pleurogona

Sea grape Molgula manhattensis, copyright Wilfried Bay-Nouailhat.

Belongs within: Urochordata.
Contains: Polycarpa.

The Pleurogona are a group of tunicates characterised by a folded pharyngeal basket, and the lack of an abdomen.

<==Pleurogona [Stolidobranchiata]
    |--MolgulidaeMG-H11
    |    |--Eugyra arenosaM62
    |    |--BostrichobranchusSM10
    |    `--Molgula Forbes & Hanley 1848M86
    |         |--M. citrinaSM10
    |         |--M. elva Kott 2008MG-H11
    |         |--M. ficus (MacDonald 1859)BS17
    |         |--M. hirta Monniot 1965M86
    |         |--M. impura [incl. M. impura var. rheophila]PP64
    |         |--M. manhattensis (De Kay 1843)L70
    |         |--M. occidentalisSM10
    |         |--M. oculataCGS00
    |         |--M. retortiformisSM10
    |         |--M. socialisS17
    |         |--M. tectiformisJ-PG07
    |         `--M. tubulosaH04
    |--PyuridaeMG-H11
    |    |--Cratostigma gravellophilaM62
    |    |--HerdmaniaMG-H11
    |    |    |--H. curvataCGS00
    |    |    |--H. grandis (Heller 1878)MG-H11
    |    |    `--H. momus (Savigny 1816)MG-H11 [=Pyura momusPP64]
    |    |--HalocynthiaSM10
    |    |    |--H. aurantiacaRZ03
    |    |    |--H. papillosaPP64
    |    |    |--H. pyriformisMS98
    |    |    `--H. roretziSM10
    |    |--Heterostigma Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde 1924M86
    |    |    |--H. fagei Monniot & Monniot 1961M86
    |    |    |--H. gonochorica Monniot 1965M86
    |    |    |--H. reptans Monniot & Monniot 1963M86
    |    |    `--H. separ Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde 1924M86
    |    |--PyuraMG-H11
    |    |    |--P. arenosa (Herdman 1881)BS17
    |    |    |--P. chilensisGO78
    |    |    |--P. pachydermatinaKG03
    |    |    |--P. scortea Kott 1985MG-H11
    |    |    |--P. stoloniferaG75
    |    |    `--P. vittataPP64
    |    `--MicrocosmusBS17
    |         |--M. helleri Herdman 1881BS17
    |         |--M. sulcatusPP64
    |         `--M. vulgarisPP64
    `--StyelidaeMG-H11
         |  i. s.: PolycarpaM86
         |         CnemidocarpaMG-H11
         |           |--C. areolata (Heller 1878)BS17
         |           |--C. bicornuataHS01
         |           |--C. completa Kott 1985MG-H11
         |           `--C. radicosa (Herdman 1882)MG-H11
         |         Stolonica aluta Kott 1985MG-H11
         |         Dendrodoa grossulariaPP64
         |         SymplegmaBS17
         |           |--S. bahraini Monniot & Monniot 1997BS17
         |           |--S. brakenhielmi (Michaelsen 1904)BS17
         |           |--S. rubra Monniot 1972BS17
         |           `--S. virideB79
         |--StyelinaeM62
         |    |--Psammostyela Weinstein 1961M62, M86
         |    |    `--P. delamarei Weinstein 1961M86
         |    `--StyelaMG-H11
         |         |--S. canopus (Savigny 1816)BS17
         |         |--S. clava Herdman 1881MG-H11
         |         |--S. grossulariaM01
         |         |--S. intestinalisS17
         |         |--S. partitaPP64
         |         `--S. plicata (Lesueur 1823)MG-H11
         `--BotryllinaeS79
              |--BotrylloidesS79
              |    |--B. leachi (Savigny 1816)HJ08
              |    `--B. purpureusH04
              `--BotryllusHJ08
                   |--B. helleborusH04
                   |--B. marionisH04
                   |--B. polycyclusH04
                   |--B. primigeniusS79
                   |--B. rubigoH04
                   |--B. schlosseri (Pallas 1766)HJ08
                   `--B. tuberatus Ritter & Forsyth 1917BS17

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BS17] Bryce, C., & A. Sampey. 2017. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: additional phyla (Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Platyhelminthes, Sipuncula, Cnidaria and Chordata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 345–361.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[CGS00] Cameron, C. B., J. R. Garey & B. J. Swalla. 2000. Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97 (9): 4469–4474.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KG03] Kingsley, R. J., R. van Gilder, R. Z. LeGros & N. Watabe. 2003. Multimineral calcareous deposits in the marine alga Acetabularia acetabulum (Chlorophyta; Dasycladaceae). Journal of Phycology 39: 937–947.

[L70] Leloup, E. 1970. Recherches sur l’ostreiculture dans le bassin de chasse d’Ostende en 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (6): 1–24.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M01] M’Intosh, W. C. 1901. The coloration of marine animals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 221–240.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[M86] Monniot, F. 1986. Urochordata=Tunicata: les ascidies interstitielles. In: Botosaneanu, L.(ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 705–708. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RZ03] Romanenko, L. A., N. V. Zhukova, M. Rhode, A. M. Lysenko, V. M. Mikhailov & E. Stackebrandt. 2003. Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans sp. nov., a novel marine agarolytic bacterium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 125–131.

[S79] Sabbadin, A. 1979. Colonial structure and genetic patterns in ascidians. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 433–444. Academic Press: London.

[SM10] Saffo, M. B., A. M. McCoy, C. Rieken & C. H. Slamovits. 2010. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16190–16195.

[S17] Sars, G. O. 1917. An Account of the Crustacea of Norway with short descriptions and figures of all the species vol. 6. Copepoda. Cyclopoida pts 11–12. Clausidiidae, Lichomolgidae (part). Bergen Museum: Bergen.

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