Thrift Armeria alpina, copyright Meneerke bloem.

Belongs within: Caryophyllales.

The Plumbaginaceae are a cosmopolitan group of mostly herbaceous plants that are most diverse in maritime areas.

Characters (from N. R. Morin): Herbs or shrubs (rarely lianas), perennial or, rarely, annual; taprooted or rhizomatous. Stems woody stocks, acaulescent, or erect to prostrate, nodes swollen; indument of simple hairs, capitate glands that may secrete water or calcium salts, or multicelled glandlike structures. Leaves often basal, alternate, spiralled; stipules absent; petiole present or absent; blade linear to broadly obovate, ovate, or round, margins entire or lobed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary cymes, panicles, racemes, or corymbs, or solitary heads; bracts herbaceous, scarious, sometimes absent; involucral bracteoles (epicalyces) immediately subtending calyces usually present. Pedicels absent or present (short). Flowers bisexual, radially symmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals persistent in mature fruits, 5, connate into 5- or 10-ribbed tube, mostly dry and membranous, sometimes petaloid, toothed or with distinct simple or lobed limbs; petals 5, nearly distinct, connate at bases or for most of their length (corolla salverform); blade clawed or claw absent, margins entire; corona absent; stamens 5; filaments adnate to bases of petals or free; ovary superior, 1-locular, placentation basal; ovules 1 per ovary, anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate; styles 1 with apically lobed stigma, or 5, each with linear stigma. Fruits utricles, achenes, or capsules. Seeds 1, embryo straight, endosperm present or absent.

<==Plumbaginaceae [Plumbaginales]
    |  i. s.: ‘Gentiana’ sessilisG39
    |--Ceratostigma ulicinumO88
    |--Acantholimon ulicinumSL06
    |--Muellerolimon salicorniaceumKM08
    |--Limoniastrum guyonianumD17
    |--Aegialitis [Aegialitidoideae]T00
    |    `--A. annulata Brown 1810HS14
    |--Dyerophytum [incl. Vogelia Lamk. 1792 non Gmelin 1791]SY72
    |    `--D. indicum (Gibs. ex Wight) Kuntze 1891 [=Vogelia indica Gibs. ex Wight 1847; incl. V. arabica]SY72
    |--Plumbago L. 1753 [Plumbaginoideae]L95
    |    |--P. auriculata Lam. 1786 [incl. P. capensis Thunb. 1794]L95
    |    |--P. indica L. in Stickm. 1754 [incl. P. coccinea Salisb. 1796, P. rosea L. 1762]L95
    |    |--P. pearsoniiCV06
    |    |--P. scandens L. 1762L95
    |    |--P. wissiiCV06
    |    `--P. zeylanicaBB07
    |--StaticeM55 [StaticoideaeT00]
    |    |--S. bonduelliD17
    |    |--S. limoniumRD77
    |    |--S. minutifloraM55
    |    |--S. plantagineaC55
    |    |--S. pruinosaD17
    |    |    |--S. p. var. pruinosaD17
    |    |    `--S. p. var. trichocalycina Diels 1917D17
    |    `--S. virgataC74
    |    |--L. arborescensH93
    |    |--L. australe [=Statice australis]H90
    |    |--L. californicum [incl. L. californicum var. mexicanum]H93
    |    |--L. carolinianumNS96
    |    |--L. dyeriCV06
    |    |--L. graecumPT98
    |    |--L. limbatumNS96
    |    |--L. lobatum [incl. L. thouinii]H90
    |    |--L. narbonensePT98
    |    |--L. otolepisH93
    |    |--L. pereziiH93
    |    |--L. sinuatumPT01
    |    `--L. virgatumPT98
         |--A. alpina [=A. maritima ssp. alpina]NFFAR01
         |--A. bigerrensisNFFAR01
         |--A. bourgaeiNFFAR01
         |--A. cantabricaNFFAR01
         |--A. chilensisD03
         |    |--A. c. var. chilensisD03
         |    `--A. c. var. magellanicaD03
         |--A. colorataNFFAR01
         |--A. filicaulisNFFAR01
         |    |--A. f. ssp. filicaulisNFFAR01
         |    |    |--A. f. ssp. f. var. filicaulisNFFAR01
         |    |    `--A. f. ssp. f. var. minorNFFAR01
         |    `--A. f. ssp. nevadensisNFFAR01
         |--A. maritimaG60
         |    |--A. m. ssp. maritimaH93
         |    `--A. m. ssp. californicaH93
         |--A. pubinervisNFFAR01
         |--A. rothmaleriNFFAR01
         |--A. ruscinonensisC74
         |--A. splendensNFFAR01
         |--A. transmontanaNFFAR01
         |--A. trianoi Nieto Feliner in Nieto Feliner, Fuertes Aguilar & Rosselló 2001NFFAR01
         `--A. villosaNFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. villosaNFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. bernisiiNFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. carratracensisNFFAR01
              `--A. v. ssp. longiaristataNFFAR01

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[G39] Grisebach, A. H. R. 1839. Genera et Species Gentianearum adjectis observationibus quibusdam phytogeographicis. J. G. Cotta: Stuttgardt.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[NS96] Neunzig, H. H., & M. A. Solis. 1996. A new species of Palatka Hulst (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 64–67.

[NFFAR01] Nieto Feliner, G., J. Fuertes Aguilar & J. A. Rosselló. 2001. A new species of Armeria (Plumbaginaceae) from southern Spain with molecular and morphometric evidence on its origin. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 71–84.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[SY72] Shah, G. L., & D. V. Yogi. 1972. Nomenclatural changes in some Bombay plants—IV. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 444–449.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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