Milk moonsnail Polinices lacteus, copyright Deb Devers.

Belongs within: Naticidae.

Polinices is a genus of mostly white moon snails found in the Indo-Pacific oceans. They possess a brown corneous operculum, a medium to thick parietal callus and a partially to completely filled umbilicus.

Characters (from Oldroyd 1927): Shell oval or suboval, solid, smooth, spire short, sharp; aperture semicircular, inner lip oblique, callous, callus extending into umbilicus. Operculum corneous. Colour usually white, sometimes coloured but not banded or spotted.

<==Polinices Montfort 1810 [incl. Uber Humphreys 1797 (nom. inv.); Poliniceinae, Polinicina, Polynicidae]W93
    |--P. hepaticus (Röding 1798)S11
    `--+--P. lacteus (Guilding 1833)S11
       `--P. uberinus (Orbigny 1842)S11
Polinices incertae sedis:
  P. albumen (Linnaeus 1758) [=Nerita albumen]H09
  P. ambiguus Suter 1913 (n. d.)F27b
  P. bifasciataC64
  ‘Uber’ carlei Finlay 1927 [=Natica callosa Sowerby 1840 non Cristofori & Jan 1832]F27b
  P. duplicatus (Say 1822)F77
  ‘Uber’ firmus [=Euspira firma]A27
  P. hacketti Marincovich 1975BC01
  P. herosB68
  P. huttoni (v. Ihering 1907)M49, F27b [=Uber huttoniF27b, Natica gibbosa Hutton 1886 non Lea 1833F27b]
  ‘Uber’ ingrata Wilckens 1922F27a
  P. intracrassus Finlay 1924 (see below for synonymy)F27b
  P. kummeli Sohl 1960BS00
  ‘Uber’ laxus Finlay 1926F27a
  P. limi Pilsbry 1931 [=P. rapulum limi]BC01
  ‘Uber’ lobatusA27
  P. mellosus Hedley 1924WG71
  P. nanus Moller 1842O27
  ‘Uber’ obstructus Marwick 1924F27b
  P. oneroaensis Powell & Bartrum 1929PB29
  P. otis [=Natica otis; incl. P. fusca]C64
  ‘Natica ovata’ Hutton 1873 (n. d.) non Klipstein 1843F27b
  ‘Uber’ ovuloides Marwick 1924F27b
  P. perspicuaC64
  ‘Uber’ pontis [=Neverita pontis]A27
  P. pseudoredemptusJB12
  ‘Uber’ schepmani Finlay 1927 [=Natica crassa Schepman 1909 non N. subinfundibulum var. crassa Tate 1893]F27b
  ‘Uber’ selwyniana Wilckens 1922F27a
  ‘Uber’ subsolida (d’Orb. 1852) (see below for synonymy)F27b
  P. triseriata (Say 1826)W78
  P. uberO27
  P. unisulcatusPB29
  P. vavaosi (Reeve 1855)WBS-S15
  ‘Uber’ vitreus [=Lunatia vitrea]F27a
  P. (Polinices)W93
    |--*P. (P.) albus Montfort 1810BR17 [=Nerita albaW93, Natica albaH09]
    |--P. (P.) aurantius (Röding 1798)W93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. (P.) ayresi Gabriel 1961W93
    `--P. (P.) mammilla (Linnaeus 1758)W93 (see below for synonymy)
  P. (Glossaulax Pilsbry 1929)W93
    |--P. (*G.) reclusianusW93
    |--P. (G.) didyma (Röding 1798)W93 [=Albula didymaH09; incl. P. ephebus Hedley 1915W93]
    `--P. (G.) incei (Philippi 1851)W93 [=Natica incei H09; incl. P. fibula Reeve 1855W93]
  P. (Polinella Beu & Maxwell 1990)BS00
    |--P. (*P.) finlayi (Marwick 1924) [=Uber finlayi]BS00
    |--P. (P.) ganae (Philippi 1887) (see below for synonymy)BS00
    |--‘Polinella’ lobataM49
    `--‘Polinella’ scalptaB70

Polinices intracrassus Finlay 1924 [=Uber intracrassus, Natica callosa Hutton 1873 nec Cristofori & Jan 1832 nec Sowerby 1840]F27b

Polinices (Polinella) ganae (Philippi 1887) [=Natica ganae; incl. N. araucana Philippi 1887, N. australis Orbigny 1842 non Bosc 1801, N. oliviformis Philippi 1887]BS00

Polinices (Polinices) aurantius (Röding 1798)W93 [=Albula aurantiumH09; incl. P. mellosum Hedley 1924W93, P. straminea Récluz 1844W93, P. sulphurea Récluz 1844W93]

Polinices (Polinices) mammilla (Linnaeus 1758)W93 [=Nerita mamilla H09; incl. P. albula Récluz 1851W93, P. cygnea Philippi 1852W93, Nerita mamilla var. lacteaR43, P. ponderosa Philippi 1852W93, P. pyriformis Récluz 1844W93, P. tumidus Swainson 1840W93]

‘Uber’ subsolida (d’Orb. 1852) [=Natica subsolida, N. solida Sowerby 1846 non Blainville 1825, N. darwini Hutton 1886]F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BS00] Bandel, K., & W. Stinnesbeck. 2000. Gastropods of the Quiriquina Formation (Maastrichtian) in central Chile: paleobiogeographic relationships and the description of a few new taxa. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I 7–8: 757–788.

[B68] Bernard, F. R. 1968. Sexual dimorphism in Polinices lewisi (Naticidae). Nautilus 82 (1): 1–3.

[B70] Beu, A. G. 1970. Bathyal Upper Miocene Mollusca from Wairarapa district, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Earth Sciences 7 (12): 209–240.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F77] Franz, D. R. 1977. Size and age-specific predation by Lunatia heros (Say, 1822) on the surf clam Spisula solidissima (Dillwyn, 1817) off western Long Island, New York. Veliger 20 (2): 144–150.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[M49] Mason, B. 1949. The geology of Mandamus-Pahau district, north Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 403–428.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PB29] Powell, A. W. B., & J. A. Bartrum. 1929. The Tertiary (Waitematan) molluscan fauna of Oneroa, Waiheke Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 60: 395–447.

[R43] Récluz, C. A. 1843. Descriptions of new species of Navicella, Neritina, Nerita and Natica, in the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 197–214.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[W78] West, D. L. 1978. Reproductive biology of Colus stimpsoni (Prosobranchia: Buccinidae). I. Male genital system. Veliger 20 (3): 266–273.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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