Polydesmida

Subterranean millipedes Stygiochiropus, from The Telegraph.

Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Rhachodesmidae, Pyrgodesmidae, Polydesmoidea, Xystodesmoidea, Platyrhacidae, Catharosoma, Australiosomatini, Antichiropus.

The Polydesmida, flat-backed millipedes, are a diverse group of millipedes commonly bearing distinct lateral keels on the body segments. These keels are directed nearly ventrally in members of the family Sphaeriodesmidae, which are capable of volvation (rolling into a ball); in members of the remaining, non-volvating families they are directed more horizontally (Hoffman 1990).

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body of adults with 18 to 20 segments, the segmental sclerites fused into a single solid ring usually without trace of sutures. Ocelli absent. Gonopores formed from anterior leg-pair of seventh segment.

<==Polydesmida [Merocheta, Proterospermophora]
    |--PolydesmideaH90
    |    |--PyrgodesmidaeH90
    |    |--Macrosternodesmidae [Nearctodesmidae, Trichopolydesmoidea]H90
    |    |    |  i. s.: ‘Polydesmus’ cavicolus Packard 1877S10
    |    |    |--Ergodesmus remingtoniH90
    |    |    |--Ophiodesmus albonanusH90
    |    |    |--OodedesmusH90
    |    |    |--PhreatodesmusH90
    |    |    |--HarpagonopusH90
    |    |    |--TidesmusH90
    |    |    |--NearctodesmusH90
    |    |    `--KepolydesmusH90
    |    `--PolydesmoideaH90
    |--ChelodesmideaH90
    |    |--XystodesmoideaH90
    |    |--PlatyrhacidaeH90
    |    `--Sphaeriodesmidae [Cyclodesmidae, Desmonidae, Sphaeriodesminae, Sphaerodesmoidea]H90
    |         |--Colobodesmus triramus Kraus 1954K54
    |         |--DesmonusH90
    |         |--DesmoniellaH90
    |         `--SphaeriodesmusK54
    |              |--S. angustatusK54
    |              |--S. bukowinus Chamberlin 1952K54
    |              |--S. digitatusK54
    |              |--S. longiramus Kraus 1954K54
    |              `--S. nodulosus Kraus 1954K54
    `--Paradoxosomatide [Paradoxosomatidea, Strongylosomatidea, Strongylosomidae]H90
         |  i. s.: CatharosomaK55
         |         Oxidus gracilis (Koch 1847)CWH13 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Orthomorpha coarctata (Saussure 1860)K55, K54 [=Polydesmus coarctatusK54, Asiomorpha coarctataJG19]
         |           |--O. c. coarctataA27
         |           `--O. c. gigas Attems 1927A27
         |         Chondrodesmus Silvestri 1897K54
         |           |--C. acuticollis Attems 1931K54
         |           |--C. alidensK54
         |           |--C. montanus (Pocock 1909) [=Dirhabdophallus montanus]K54
         |           |--C. orientalis Kraus 1954K54
         |           `--C. panamenusK54
         |         HabrodesmusK55
         |           |--H. acollae Kraus 1955K55
         |           |--H. (Titschackia) andinus (Verhoeff 1941) [=Titschackia andina]K55
         |           |--H. llaguenicus Kraus 1954K55
         |           |    |--H. l. llaguenicusK55
         |           |    `--H. l. taulisensis Kraus 1955K55
         |           |--H. semirugosus (Pocock 1888)K54
         |           `--H. uncinatus Kraus 1954K54
         |         Solaenodolichopus Verhoeff 1924 [=Solänodolichopus]CH14
         |           |--S. pruvoti (BRolemann 1931)CWH13
         |           |--S. teres (Verhoeff 1924) [=Antichiropus (Solaenodolichopus) teres]CH14
         |           `--S. vittatus (Verhoeff 1924) [=Antichiropus (Solaenodolichopus) vittatus]CH14
         |                |--S. v. vittatusCH14
         |                `--S. v. dorsalis (Verhoeff 1924) [=Antichiropus (Solaenodolichopus) vittatus dorsalis]CH14
         |         Haplochiropus Attems 1944CH14
         |           `--*H. pustulosus (Attems 1944) [=Antichiropus (*Haplochiropus) pustulosus]CH14
         |         Akamptogonus novarae (Humbert & de Saussure 1869)CWH13
         |         HylomusLH62
         |         CentrodesmusLH62
         |         PratinusLH62
         |--StrongylosominiS32
         |    |--Onciurosoma Silvestri 1932S32
         |    |    |--*O. neotropicum Silvestri 1932S32
         |    |    `--O. acisternum Silvestri 1932S32
         |    `--StrongylosomaB13
         |         |--S. innotatum (Karsch 1881) [=Polydesmus (Strongylosoma) innotatum]B13
         |         |--S. novarrae (von Humboldt & Sauss. 1869) [=Polydesmus (Strongylosoma) novarrae]B13
         |         |--S. rubripes (Koch 1867) [=Polydesmus (Strongylosoma) rubripes]B13
         |         |--S. sagittarium (Karsch 1881) [=Polydesmus (Strongylosoma) sagittarium]B13
         |         `--S. semoni Attems 1898B13
         `--AustraliosomatinaeCH13
              |  i. s.: Mjoebergodesmus Verhoeff 1924CH13
              |         Hoplatessara Verhoeff 1928CH13
              |         Dicladosomella Jeekel 1982CH13
              |         Oncocladosoma Jeekel 1985CH13
              |         Somethus Chamberlin 1920CH13
              |--AustraliosomatiniCWH13
              `--AntichiropodiniCH14
                   |--AntichiropusCH13
                   |--Helicopodosoma Verhoeff 1924CWH13
                   |--Notodesmus Chamberlin 1920CWH13
                   `--Stygiochiropus Humphreys & Shear 1993CWH13
                        `--S. communisHH95
Polydesmida incertae sedis:
  DesmoxytesRHV04
  TridontomidaeLH62
    |--Tridontomus Loomis & Hoffman 1962LH62
    |    `--*T. procerus Loomis & Hoffman 1962LH62
    `--Aenigmopus Loomis & Hoffman 1962LH62
         `--*A. alatus Loomis & Hoffman 1962LH62
  Eustrongylosoma Silvestri 1896B13
    |--*E. fasciatum (Silvestri 1894) [=Strongylosoma fasciatum]B13
    `--E. transversefasciatum Silvestri 1897B13
  AtopogonusLH62
  TelonychopusLH62
  RhachodesmidaeLH62
  Docodesmus [Chytodesmidae]RB93
    `--D. brodzinskyi Shear 1981RB93

Oxidus gracilis (Koch 1847)CWH13 [=Fontaria gracilisK55, Orthomorpha (Kalomorpha) gracilisS96, K55, Paradesmus gracilisS96]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, pls 14–18.

[CH13] Car, C. A., & M. S. Harvey. 2013. A review of the Western Australian keeled millipede genus Boreohesperus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). ZooKeys 290: 1–19.

[CH14] Car, C. A., & M. S. Harvey. 2014. The millipede genus Antichiropus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), part 2: species of the Great Western Woodlands region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 20–77.

[CWH13] Car, C. A., J. M. Wojcieszek & M. S. Harvey. 2013. The millipede genus Antichiropus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), part 1: redefinition of the genus and redescriptions of existing species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (2): 83–118.

[HH95] Harvey, M. S., & W. F. Humphreys. 1995. Notes on the genus Draculoides Harvey (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae), with the description of a new troglobitic species. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 183–189.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[LH62] Loomis, H. F., & R. L. Hoffman. 1962. A remarkable new family of spined polydesmoid Diplopoda, including a species lacking gonopods in the male sex. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 145–158.

[RHV04] Racheboeuf, P. R., J. T. Hannibal & J. Vannier. 2004. A new species of the diplopod Amynilyspes (Oniscomorpha) from the Stephanian Lagerstätte of Montceau-les-Mines, France. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 221–229.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S10] Shear, W. A. 2010. Hesperonemastoma smilax, n. sp., a remarkable new harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72 (2): 105-110.

[S96] Shelley, R. M. 1996. Book Review: The Biology of Millipedes. Stephen P. Hopkin and Helen J. Read. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 169–172.

[S32] Silvestri, F. 1932. Description of a new genus and two new species of South American Diplopoda of the family Polydesmidae. American Museum Novitates 565: 1–4.

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