Pa element of Pseudopolygnathus martenburgensis trigonicus, from here.

Belongs within: Spathognathodontidae.
Contains: Polygnathus, Ctenopolygnathus.

The Polygnathidae are a group of conodonts known from the Early Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, with an apparatus including carminate pectiniform elements with a straight or more or less curved platform and a free anterior blade (Bardashev et al. 2002, for Polygnathidae + Eognathodidae + Eopolygnathidae). In later polygnathids, these elements are carminiplanate; Bardashev et al. (2002) separated earlier forms with carminiscaphate elements as the families Eognathodidae and Eopolygnathidae but treated the restricted Polygnathidae as polyphyletic.

In the late Devonian Ancyrognathus, the platform elements bore an anteroposterior keel from with a series of distinct nodes extended across the anterior lobe of the element, overall creating the appearance of a raised Y that was matched by keels on the ventral surface (Sweet 1988).

<==Polygnathidae [Polygnathinae]
    |--Rhodalepis Druce 1969BWZ02
    |--Ancyrolepis Ziegler 1959BWZ02
    |    `--*A. cruciformis Ziegler 1959M62
    |--Polylophodonta Branson & Mehl 1934BWZ02
    |    `--P. confluens (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) (see below for synonymy)H62
    |--Scaphignathus Helms 1959BWZ02
    |    `--*S. velifera Ziegler 1960M62
    |--Gnathodella Matern 1933H62
    |    `--*G. angulata Matern 1933H62
    |--Schmidtognathus Ziegler 1966BWZ02
    |    |--S. hermanniS88
    |    `--S. wittekindtiS88
    |--Ambalodus Branson & Mehl 1933H62
    |    |--*A. triangularis Branson & Mehl 1933H62
    |    `--A. galerusS88
    |--Avignathus Lys & Serre 1957D02
    |    |--A. decorosus (Stauffer 1938) [=Polygnathus decorosus; incl. *A. beckmanni Lys & Serre in Lys et al. 1957]D02
    |    `--A. bifurcatus Dzik 2002D02
    |--Nothognathella Branson & Mehl 1934H62
    |    |--*N. typicalis Branson & Mehl 1934H62
    |    `--N. sublaevis Sannemann 1955KU04
    |--Panderodella Bassler 1925H62
    |    |--*P. truncata Bassler 1925H62
    |    `--P. gracilisH62
    |--Nicollidina Dzik 2002D02
    |    |--*N. brevis (Bischoff & Ziegler 1957) [=Spathognathodus brevis]D02
    |    |--N. postera (Klapper & Lane 1985)D02
    |    `--N. raaschi (Klapper & Barrick 1983)D02
    |--Mehlina Youngquist 1945D02, S88
    |    |--M. irregularis Youngquist 1945 [incl. M. gradatus Youngquist 1945]D02
    |    |--M. semialternans ((Wirth 1967) [=Ozarkodina semialternans]D01
    |    |--M. strigosaS88
    |    `--M. unica Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
    |--Tortodus Weddige 1977D02
    |    |--*T. kockelianus (Bischoff & Ziegler 1957)D02
    |    |    |--T. k. kockelianusS88
    |    |    `--T. k. australisS88
    |    |--T. intermediusS88
    |    `--T. treptus (Ziegler 1958)D02
    |--Siphonodella Branson & Mehl 1944BWZ02 [=Siphonognathus Branson & Mehl 1934 non Richardson 1858H62]
    |    |--S. praesulcataS88
    |    `--+--*S. duplicata (Branson & Mehl 1934)H62, S88, H62 [=*Siphonognathus duplicataH62]
    |       |--S. carinthiacaS88
    |       |--S. cooperiS88
    |       |--S. isosticha (Cooper 1939)S88, AS93
    |       |--S. lobataS88
    |       |--S. sulcataS88
    |       |--+--S. crenulataS88
    |       |  `--S. quadruplicataS88
    |       `--+--S. obsoletaS88
    |          `--S. sandbergiS88
    |--Ancyrognathus Branson & Mehl 1934BWZ02 [incl. Ancyroides Miller & Youngquist 1947H62]
    |    |--*A. symmetrica Branson & Mehl 1934H62
    |    |--A. ancyrognathoideus (Ziegler 1958)KU04
    |    |--A. asymmetricus (Ulrich & Bassler 1926)D02
    |    |--A. bifurcatus (Ulrich & Bassler 1926)KU04
    |    |--A. calvini (Miller & Youngquist 1947)KU04
    |    |--A. coeniMB12
    |    |--A. cryptusS88
    |    |--A. iowaensis Youngquist 1947KU04
    |    |--A. sinelaminus (Branson & Mehl 1934)KU04
    |    |--A. triangularis Youngquist 1945KU04
    |    |--A. tsieniMB12
    |    `--A. ubiquitus Sandberg et al. 1988D02
    |--Pseudopolygnathus Branson & Mehl 1934BWZ02
    |    |--*P. prima Branson & Mehl 1934H62
    |    |--P. dentilineatusS88
    |    |--P. fusiformisS88
    |    |--P. lobatusS88
    |    |--P. marginatusS88
    |    |--P. martenburgensisS88
    |    |    |--P. m. martenburgensisS88
    |    |    `--P. m. trigonicusS88
    |    |--P. multistriatusS88
    |    |--P. nudusS88
    |    |--P. oxypageusS88
    |    |--P. radinusS88
    |    `--P. triangulusS88
    `--Gondwania Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002 [Eognathodidae, Eopolygnathidae]BWZ02
         |--G. irregularis (Druce 1975) [=Eognathodus irregularis; incl. Eognathodus sulcatus eosulcatus Murphy 1989]BWZ02
         |--+--G. drucei Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002BWZ02
         |  `--+--G. juliae (Lane & Ormiston 1979) [=Eognathodus sulcatus juliae]BWZ02
         |     `--+--‘Eognathodus’ secus Philip 1965 [=E. sulcatus secus]BWZ02
         |        `--+--‘Spathognathodus’ trilinearis Cooper 1973 [=Eognathodus trilinearis, Polygnathus trilinearis]BWZ02
         |           `--PolygnathusBWZ02
         `--+--G. grahami Bardashev, Weddige & Ziegler 2002BWZ02
            `--+--*G. nevadensis (Clark & Ethington 1966) [=Spathognathodus bipennatus nevadensis]BWZ02
               `--Eognathodus Philip 1965BWZ02
                    |  i. s.: E. bipennatusV03
                    |--*E. sulcatus Philip 1965 [=Spathognathodus sulcatus]BWZ02
                    `--+--E. zeravshanicus Bardashev & Ziegler 1992 (see below for synonymy)BWZ02
                          `--Parapolygnathus Klapper & Philip 1971D02
                               |--*P. angusticostatus (Wittekindt 1966)D02 (see below for synonymy)
                               |--P. brevis (Miller & Youngquist 1947)D02
                               `--P. linguiformis (Hinde 1879)D02

Eognathodus zeravshanicus Bardashev & Ziegler 1992 [=E. trilinearis zeravshanicus, Polygnathus zeravshanicus]BWZ02

*Parapolygnathus angusticostatus (Wittekindt 1966)D02 [=Polygnathus angusticostatusD02, Ctenopolygnathus angusticostatusBWZ02]

Polylophodonta confluens (Ulrich & Bassler 1926) [=Polygnathus confluens; incl. Polygnathus gyratilineata Holmes 1928, *Polylophodonta gyratilineata]H62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS93] Aldridge, R. J., & M. P. Smith. 1993. Conodonta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 563–572. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BWZ02] Bardashev, I. A., K. Weddige & W. Ziegler. 2002. The phylomorphogenesis of some Early Devonian platform conodonts. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 82: 375–451.

[D01] Donoghue, P. C. J. 2001. Conodonts meet cladistics: recovering relationships and assessing the completeness of the conodont fossil record. Palaeontology 44 (1): 65–93.

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KU04] Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian–Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78: 371–387.

[MB12] Mistiaen, B., D. Brice, M. K. Zapalski & C. Loones. 2012. Brachiopods and their auloporid epibionts in the Devonian of Boulonnais (France): comparison with other associations globally. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 159–188. Springer.

[M62] Müller, K. J. 1962. Supplement to systematics of conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W246–W249. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[V03] Valiukevičius, J. 2003. Devonian acanthodians from Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago (Russia). Geodiversitas 25: 131–204.

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