Opposite sides and top view of Sigmomorphina spatula, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964b).

Belongs within: Polymorphinida.
Contains: Guttulina.

The Polymorphinidae are a group of multichambered forams known from the Triassic to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test multilocular, chambers in spiral or sigmoidal coil about longitudinal axis of growth, or biserial or uniserial, typically somewhat overlapping; aberrant forms may be irregular and attached; apertures all develop in same direction, terminal, radiate.

| i. s.: Misilus de Montfort 1808C40, LT64b
| `--*M. aquatifer de Montfort 1808LT64b
| Apiopterina Zborzewski 1834 (n. d.)LT64b
| `--*A. orbignyi Zborzewski 1834LT64b
| Raphanulina Zborzewski 1834 (n. d.)LT64b
| `--*R. humboldtii Zborzewski 1834LT64b
| ‘Diplostoma’ Ebensberger 196 nec Rafinesque 1817 nec de Fromentel 1860 (n. d.)LT64b
| `--*D. siamesia Ebensberger 1962 (n. d.)LT64b
| Arethusa de Montfort 1808 (n. d.)LT64b
| `--*A. corymbosa de Montfort 1808LT64b
|--Falsoguttulina Bartenstein & Brand 1949LT64b [FalsoguttulininaeM13]
| `--*F. wolburgi Bartenstein & Brand 1949LT64b
| |--Histopomphus Loeblich & Tappan 1949LT64b
| | `--*H. redriverensis (Tappan 1943) [=Globulina redriverensis]LT64b
| |--Vitriwebbina Chapman 1892LT64b
| | `--*V. sollasi Chapman 1892LT64b
| |--Webbinella Rhumbler 1904 [=Arwebbinum Rhumbler 1913]LT64b
| | |--*W. hemisphaerica (Jones, Parker & Brady 1865) [=Trochammina (Webbina) irregularis hemisphaerica]LT64b
| | `--W. crassaPP64
| `--Bullopora Quenstedt 1856 (see below for synonymy)LT64b
| |--*B. rostrata Quenstedt 1856C40
| |--B. breoni (Terquem & Piette in Terquem 1862) [=Webbina breoni, *Arplacopsum breoni, *Placopsum breoni]LT64b
| |--B. irregularis (d’Orbigny 1850) [=Webbina irregularis, *Arperneroum irregulare]LT64b
| `--B. laevisC40
| i. s.: Enantiomorphina Marie 1941LT64b
| `--*E. lemoinei Marie 1941LT64b
| Globulina d’Orbigny in De la Sagra 1839 non Link 1820 (ICBN) [incl. Aulostomella Alth 1850]LT64b
| |--*G. gibba (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Polymorphina (Globuline) gibba, Guttulina (*Globulina) gibba]LT64b
| | |--G. g. gibbaA68
| | `--G. g. globosa (v. Munster 1838)A68
| |--G. arenacea Brotzen 1948LT64a
| |--G. inaequalisC40
| |--*Aulostomella’ pediculus Alth 1850LT64b
| `--G. vorderschmittiFP12
| Paradentalina Uchio 1960LT64b
| `--*P. muraii (Uchio 1953) [=Enantiodentalina muraii]LT64b
| Pyrulina d’Orbigny in De la Sagra 1839 (see below for synonymy)LT64b
| |--*P. gutta (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Polymorphina (Pyruline) gutta]LT64b
| |--P. cylindroidesC40
| |--P. fusiformisC40
| `--‘Polymorphina’ lanceolata Reuss 1851 [=*Pyrulinella lanceolata]LT64b
| Pyrulinoides Marie 1941LT64b
| `--*P. acuminata (d’Orbigny 1840) [=Pyrulina acuminata]LT64b
| Sagoplecta Tappan 1951LT64b
| `--*S. goniata Tappan 1951LT64b
| Tobolia Dain in Bykova et al. 1958LT64b
| `--*T. veronikae Dain in Bykova et al. 1958 (see below for synonymy)LT64b
| Scythimorphina Neagu & Cîrnaru 2001M13
|--Eoguttulina Cushman & Ozawa 1930C40
| |--*E. anglica Cushman & Ozawa 1930C40
| `--E. polygonaC40
|--Glandulopleurostomella Silvestri 1903G-B87 [incl. Paleopolymorphina Cushman & Ozawa 1930C40]
| |--*G. subcylindrica (Hantken 1875) [=Polymorphina subcylindrica]LT64b
| |--G. pleurostomelloides (Franke 1928)G-B87 (see below for synonymy)
| `--‘Paleopolymorphina’ rara Vassilenko 1961G-B87
|--Spirofrondicularia Schubert 1902LT64b [incl. Quadrulina Cushman & Ozawa 1930C40, LT64b]
| |--*S. frondicularioides (Chapman 1894) [=Polymorphina frondicularioides]LT64b
| |--‘Quadrulina’ lagenalisC40
| `--‘Polymorphina’ rhabdogonoides Chapman 1894 [=*Quadrulina rhabdogonoides]LT64b
`--+--Pseudopolymorphina Cushman & Ozawa 1928C40
| |--*P. hanzawai Cushman & Ozawa 1928C04
| |--P. atlanticaLT64a
| |--P. jonesiC40
| |--P. ligua (Roemer 1838)A68
| |--P. rutilaC40
| `--P. tasmanica Parr & Collins 1937Q72
`--+--Sigmomorphina Cushman & Ozawa 1928C40 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*S. yokoyamai (Cushman & Ozawa 1928) [=Sigmomorpha (*Sigmomorphina) yokoyamai]LT64b
| |--S. frondiculariformisC40
| |--S. parisiensis Rouvillois 1960 [=S. (*Sigmomorphinoides) parisiensis]LT64b
| |--S. pseudoregularisC40
| |--S. semitecta [incl. S. semitecta var. terquemiana]C40
| |--S. spatula (Lalicker 1950) [=*Ellisina spatula, *Pealerina spatula]LT64b
| |--S. williamsoniM62
| `--S. wynyardensis Parr & Collins 1937Q72
`--+--Sigmoidella Cushman & Ozawa 1928C04 [incl. Sigmoidina Cushman & Ozawa 1928LT64b]
| |--*S. kagaensis Cushman & Ozawa 1928C04
| |--S. elegantissima (Parker & Jones 1865)A68
| `--S. pacifica Cushman & Ozawa 1928 [=S. (*Sigmoidina) pacifica]LT64b
`--Polymorphina d’Orbigny 1826C40 (see below for synonymy)
|--*P. burdigalensis d’Orbigny 1826 (see below for synonymy)LT64b
|--P. charlottensisC40
`--P. complanataC40

Nomina nuda: Polymorphina labiata [=Ellipsopleurostomella labiata]LT64b
Polymorphina nodosa Battey 1949B49

Bullopora Quenstedt 1856 [incl. Arperneroum Rhumbler 1913, Arplacopsum Rhumbler 1913, Placopsum Rhumbler 1913]LT64b

Glandulopleurostomella pleurostomelloides (Franke 1928)G-B87 [=Polymorphina pleurostomelloidesG-B87, *Paleopolymorphina pleurostomelloidesC40]

Polymorphina d’Orbigny 1826C40 [=Glandulopolymorphina Silvestri 1901LT64b, Rostrolina von Schlicht 1870LT64b]

*Polymorphina burdigalensis d’Orbigny 1826 [=*Glandulopolymorphina burdigalensis, *Rostrolina burdigalensis]LT64b

Pyrulina d’Orbigny in De la Sagra 1839 [=Pirulina Bronn & Roemer 1853; incl. Pyrulinella Cushman & Ozawa 1928]LT64b

Sigmomorphina Cushman & Ozawa 1928C40 [incl. Ellisina Lalicker 1950 non Norman 1903LT64b, Pealerina Lalicker in Thalmann 1950LT64b, Sigmomorphinoides Rouvillois 1960LT64b]

*Tobolia veronikae Dain in Bykova et al. 1958 [=T. veronica Bykova, Dain & Fursenko in Rauzer-Chernousova & Fursenko 1959]LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A68] Albani, A. D. 1968. Recent Foraminiferida of the central coast of New South Wales. AMSA Handbook 1: 1–37.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FP12] Farabegoli, E., & M. C. Perri. 2012. Millennial physical events and the end-Permian mass mortality in the western Palaeotethys: timing and primary causes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 719–758. Springer.

[G-B87] Gawor-Biedowa, E. 1987. New benthic foraminifers from the Late Cretaceous of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 32 (1–2): 49–72.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

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