Polysiphonia

Polysiphonia stricta, copyright Roger Rittmaster.

Belongs within: Rhodomelaceae.

Polysiphonia is a genus of red algae with the thallus divided between undifferentiated terete branches (Womersley 2003).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus erect, radially branched with progressively slenderer branches towards apices but without differentiation into indeterminate and determinate branches, with basal rhizoidal holdfasts or prostrate axes attached by unicellular or multicellular rhizoids cut off or not from pericentral cells. Growth apical, monopodial, with trichoblasts usually present and arising exogenously from every or many subapical cells; trichoblasts colourless (non-rhodoplastic), spirally arranged, usually caducous leaving a basal scar cell. Pericentral cells 4–24 (rarely 5), same length as central cell, relatively constant in number within a species, the first cut off below trichoblast, the others in alternating sequence, ecorticate or corticated by descending filaments. Lateral branches borne on basal cell of trichoblasts or replacing them, or adventitious (cicatrigenous) from central cell of older branches. Cells mostly uninucleate. Gametophytes usually dioecious, rarely monoecious, occasionally with mixed phases. Procarps on fifth pericentral cell arising on supra-basal segment of trichoblast, with 2-celled lateral sterile group, (3–) 4-celled carpogonial branch and 1-celled basal sterile group. Fertilization followed by diploidisation of auxiliary cell via connecting cell, with formation of single gonimoblast initial, then basal fusion cell and branched carposporophyte with clavate terminal carposporangia, replaced from subapical cells. Cystocarps globular to urceolate, with or without a neck; pericarp arising pre-fertilization, from pericentral cells adjacent to procarp, developing 12–14 axial filaments each with two outer pericentral cells and often corticated. Spermatangia borne on modified trichoblasts, as a single or several terete branches, usually with a basal sterile and often apical cells; axial cells with four pericentral cells, dividing anticlinally and periclinally to form 2(–3) layers, with a surface layer of spermatangia. Tetrasporangia produced in lateral branchlets, one per segment, usually spirally arranged (occasionally in linear series), tetrahedrally divided, covered by two pre-sporangial cover cells and sometimes third, basal, post-sporangial cover cell.

<==Polysiphonia Greville 1823 (nom. cons.) [incl. Orcasia Kylin 1941]W03
    |--P. stricta (Dillwyn) Greville 1824W03 [incl. *P. urceolata (Dillwyn) Greville 1824W03, Oligosiphonia urceolataG64]
    |--P. abscissoides Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. adamsiae Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. amphibolis Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. aterrima Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |--P. atricapilla Agardh 1863W03
    |--P. atrorubensG64
    |--P. australiensis Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. blandii Harvey 1862W03
    |--P. boldiiJLG03
    |--P. breviarticulataW03
    |--P. brevisegmenta Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. brodiei (Dillwyn) Sprengel 1827 [=Conferva brodiaei Dillwyn 1809]W03
    |--P. caulescens Agardh 1896L27
    |--P. collinsii Hollenberg 1944S57
    |    |--P. c. var. collinsiiS57
    |    |--P. c. var. deliquescens Hollenberg 1944S57
    |    `--P. c. var. luxurians Hollenberg 1944S57
    |--P. constricta Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. corymbifera Agardh 1822L27
    |--P. crassiuscula Harvey 1859W03
    |--P. daveyae Reinbold 1899W03
    |--P. decipiens Montagne 1842 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--P. dichotomaM62
    |--P. dumosa Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |--P. ferulacea Suhr ex Agardh 1863W03
    |--P. fibrataW03
    |--P. flocculosaPP64
    |--P. forfex Harvey 1859 [=P. forcipata Harvey 1855 non Agardh 1842, P. japonica var. forfex (Harvey) Yoon 1986]W03
    |--P. fragilisW03
    |--P. furcellata [incl. P. forcipata Agardh 1842 non Harvey 1855]W03
    |--P. haplodasyae Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. harveyiMS98
    |--P. havanensisW03
    |--P. implexa Hooker & Harvey 1845W03
    |--P. infestans Harvey 1855 [incl. P. zostericola Lucas 1919]W03
    |--P. isogona Harvey 1855 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--P. japonicaW03
    |--P. johnstonii [incl. P. marchantiae]N10
    |--P. lanosaP01
    |--P. laxa Kützing 1843W03
    |--P. lyallii Hooker & Harvey 1847L27
    |--P. macounii Hollenberg 1942S57
    |--P. microcarpa Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |--P. mollis Hooker & Harvey ex Harvey 1847 [incl. P. flavescens Zanardini 1874]W03
    |--P. morrowiiKBC03
    |--P. muelleriana Agardh 1870L27
    |--P. nigrescensG64
    |--P. notoensisW03
    |--P. pacifica Hollenberg 1942S57
    |    |--P. p. var. pacificaS57
    |    |--P. p. var. determinata Hollenberg 1942S57
    |    |--P. p. var. distans Hollenberg 1942S57
    |    |--P. p. var. disticha Hollenberg 1942S57
    |    `--P. p. var. gracilis Hollenberg 1942S57
    |--P. paniculata Montagne 1842S57
    |--P. parasiticaG64
    |--P. perriniae Womersley 1859 [incl. P. laxa Harvey 1859 non Kützing 1843]W03
    |--P. propagulifera Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. ramulosa Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
    |--P. rutilans Kützing 1849 (n. d.)W03
    |--P. savatieriP01
    |--P. scopulorum Harvey 1855 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--P. senticulosa Harvey 1862 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--P. sertularioides (Grateloup) Agardh 1863 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--P. shepherdii Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. snyderae Kylin 1941S57
    |    |--P. s. var. snyderaeS57
    |    `--P. s. var. heteromorpha Hollenberg 1942S57
    |--P. sphacelarioides Agardh 1885W03
    |--P. strictissima Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |--P. subuliferaG64
    |--P. subtilissima Montagne 1840 [incl. P. abscissa Hooker & Harvey 1845, P. angustissima Kützing 1864]W03
    |--P. succulenta Harvey 1859 [incl. P. spinuligera Zanardini 1874]W03
    |--P. teges Womersley 1979W03
    |--P. tongatensisW03
    |--P. tuberosaW03
    |--P. variabilis Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
    |--P. variegataG64
    |--P. virgata (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901 [incl. P. gaudichaudii]L27
    `--P. yendoiW03

Polysiphonia decipiens Montagne 1842 [incl. P. caespitula Sonder 1855, P. cancellata Harvey 1844, P. frutex Harvey 1844, P. fuscescens Harvey 1844, P. nigrita Sonder 1845, P. rytiphlaeoides Hooker & Harvey 1845]W03

Polysiphonia isogona Harvey 1855 [incl. P. amoena Sonder 1855, P. comoides Harvey 1855, P. compacta Lucas 1913, P. neglecta Harvey ex Agardh 1863, Lophosiphonia neglecta (Harvey) de Toni 1903]W03

Polysiphonia scopulorum Harvey 1855 [=Lophosiphonia scopulorum (Harvey) Womersley 1950, Vertebrata scopulorum (Harvey) Kuntze 1891]W03

Polysiphonia senticulosa Harvey 1862 [=*Orcasia senticulosa (Harvey) Kylin 1941, P. urceolata var. senticulosa; incl. P. pungens Hollenberg 1842]W03

Polysiphonia sertularioides (Grateloup) Agardh 1863 [=Ceramium sertularioides Grateloup 1806; incl. P. flaccidissima Hollenberg 1942, P. macrarthra Zanardini 1874, P. flaccidissima var. smithii]W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[JLG03] Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888–896.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P01] Phillips, L. E. 2001. Morphology and molecular analysis of the Australasian monotypic genera Lembergia and Sonderella (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta), with a description of the tribe Sonderelleae trib. nov. Phycologia 40 (5): 487–499.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta—part IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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