Pomacentridae

Blackbar demoiselle Plectroglyphidodon dickii, copyright François Libert.

Belongs within: Carangimorpharia.
Contains: Abudefduf, Chrominae, Chrysiptera, Stegastes.

The Pomacentridae, damselfishes or demoiselles, are a primarily tropical group of fishes commonly found around rocky and coral reefs (Allen 2001).

Characters (from Allen 2001): Small percoid fishes (to about 25 cm); body elongate to rounded in lateral profile, and laterally compressed. Eye medium sized, generally exceeding snout length. Mouth small, jaws equal and oblique. Small conical to incisiform teeth in jaws in a single row, sometimes with additional row of slender teeth behind primary row; teeth absent on vomer and palatines. Total gill rakers on first gill arch 10 to 85. A single dorsal fin with VII to XVII stout spines and 9 to 21 soft rays; anal fin with II spines and 9 to 16 soft rays; pelvic fins with I spine and 5 soft rays; pectoral fins with 14 to 22 rays; caudal fin rounded to forked. Scales comparatively large to moderate sized and ctenoid, extending onto head and median fins; cheeks and operculum scaly; lateral-line scales 12 to 60. Colour extremely variable with many species exhibiting shades of brown, black, blue, green, red, and yellow; a dark spot or ocellus often present on dorsal fin, particularly in juvenile stages.

Pomacentridae [Abudefdufidae, Chromidae, Pomacentriformes, Pomacentrinae]
    |--+--Mecaenichthys immaculatus (Ogilby 1885)TMH04, A01
    |  `--+--AbudefdufTMH04
    |     `--+--ChrominaeTMH04
    |        `--+--+--ChrysipteraTMH04
    |           |  `--Dischistodus Gill 1863TMH04, S60
    |           |       |--*D. fasciatus (Cuvier 1830)A75, A01 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |       |--D. chrysopoecilus (Schlegel & Müller 1839)A01 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |       |--D. darwiniensis (Whitley 1928)MM14
    |           |       |--D. melanotus (Bleeker 1858)A01
    |           |       |--D. notopthalmus (Bleeker 1853)A75 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |       |--D. perspicillatus (Cuvier 1830)MM09 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |       |--D. prosopotaenia (Bleeker 1852)MM09 [=Pomacentrus prosopotaeniaA75]
    |           |       `--D. pseudochrysopoecilus Allen & Robertson 1974A01 [=Pomacentrus pseudochrysopoecilusA75]
    |           `--Teixeirichthys Smith 1953TMH04, S60
    |                `--T. obtusirostris (Gunther 1862) [=Pomacentrus obtusirostris; incl. *T. mossambicus Smith 1953]S60
    `--+--+--‘Stegastes’ lividus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)TMH04, A01
       |  `--Plectroglyphidodon Fowler & Ball 1924TMH04, S60
       |       |  i. s.: P. nitidus Smith 1955S60
       |       |--P. (Plectroglyphidodon)A75
       |       |    |--*P. (P.) johnstonianus Fowler & Ball 1924 [=Abudefduf johnstonianus]A75
       |       |    |--P. (P.) dickii (Liénard 1839)A75, MM09 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |    |--P. (P.) flaviventris Allen & Randall 1974A75, A01
       |       |    |--P. (P.) lacrymatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)A75, MM09 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |    |--P. (P.) phoenixensis (Schultz 1943)A75, A01 [=Abudefduf phoenixensisA75]
       |       |    `--P. (P.) sindonis (Jordan & Evermann 1903) [=Glyphisodon sindonis]A75
       |       `--P. (Oliglyphisodon Fowler 1941)A75
       |            `--P. (O.) imparipennis (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875)A75, A01 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--+--Microspathodon bairdiiTMH04, ND13
          |  `--+--‘Stegastes’ adustusTMH04
          |     `--‘Stegastes’ variabilisTMH04
          `--+--Hypsypops rubicundusTMH04, B96
             `--+--Neostegastes Whitley 1929A75
                |    `--*N. leucozonus (Bleeker 1859)A75, MM09 (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--Parma Günther 1862TMH04, A75
                   |    |--*P. microlepis Günther 1862A75
                   |    |--P. alboscapularis Allen & Hoese 1975A01
                   |    |--P. bicolor Allen & Larson 1979A01
                   |    |--P. mccullochi Whitley 1929A01
                   |    |--P. occidentalis Allen & Hoese 1975A01
                   |    |--P. oligolepis Whitley 1929A01
                   |    |--P. polylepis Günther 1862A01
                   |    `--P. unifasciata (Steindachner 1867)A01
                   `--StegastesTMH04
Pomacentridae incertae sedis:
  Cheiloprion Weber 1913S60
    `--*C. labiatus (Day 1877)M28, A01 [=Pomacentrus labiatusM28, P. labiosusM28]
  Hemiglyphidodon Bleeker 1877S60 [incl. Ctenoglyphidodon Fowler 1918M28]
    `--*H. plagiometopon (Bleeker 1852)M28 (see below for synonymy)
  Lepidozygus Gunther 1862S60 [LepidozyginaeTMH04]
    `--*L. tapeinosoma (Bleeker 1856)A75 [=Pomacentrus tapeinosomaA75; incl. L. anthioides Smith 1955A75, S60]
  Pristotis Rüppell 1838 [incl. Daya Bleeker 1877]A75
    |--*P. cyanostigma Ruppell 1835 [=Pomacentrus cyanostigma]S60
    |--P. jerdoni (Day 1873)A01 [=Pomacentrus jerdoniM28, *Daya jerdoniA75]
    `--P. judithaeA75
  Amblypomacentrus Bleeker 1877A01, S60
    |--*A. breviceps (Schlegel & Müller 1839–1844)M28, A01 [=Glyphisodon brevicepsM58, Pomacentrus brevicepsM28]
    `--A. clarus Allen & Adrim 2000A01
  Pomachromis Allen & Randall 1974A75
    |--*P. richardsoni (Snyder 1909)A75, A01 [=Abudefduf richardsoniA75]
    |--P. exilis Allen & Emery 1972A01 [=Pomacentrus exilisA75]
    |--P. fuscidorsalis Allen & Randall 1974A01
    `--P. guamensis Allen & Larson 1975A01
  Izuus nakamurai Tokunaga & Saito 1938P93
  Eupomacentrus Bleeker 1877S60
    |--*E. lividus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)M28, S60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. albifasciatus (Bleeker 1861)A75, M58 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. apicalis (De Vis 1885) [=Pomacentrus apicalis]A75
    |--E. aureus (Fowler 1927) [=Pomacentrus aureus]A75
    |--E. emeryi Allen & Randall 1974A75
    |--E. fasciolatus (Ogilby 1889) (see below for synonymy)A75
    |--E. gascoynei (Whitley 1964) [=Pseudopomacentrus gascoynei]A75
    `--E. nigricans (Lacépède 1803)A75 (see below for synonymy)
  Amblyglyphidodon ternatensisA75
  Paraglyphidodon Bleeker 1877A75
    |--*P. bonang (Bleeker 1853)A75, S60 [=Glyphisodon bonangS60, Abudefduf bonangM58]
    |--P. behni (Bleeker 1847)A75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. carlsoni Allen 1975A75
    |--P. melanopus (Bleeker 1856)A75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. melas (Cuvier 1830)A75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. polyacanthus (Ogilby 1889) [=Glyphidodon polyacanthus]A75
    `--P. thoracotaeniatus (Fowler & Bean 1928) [=Abudefduf thoracotaeniatus]A75

Dischistodus chrysopoecilus (Schlegel & Müller 1839)A01 [=Pomacentrus chrysopoecilusA75; incl. P. pristigir Jordan & Richardson 1908M28]

*Dischistodus fasciatus (Cuvier 1830)A75, A01 [=Pomacentrus fasciatusA75; incl. P. darwiniensis Whitley 1928A75, Dascyllus fasciatus Macleay 1878 non P. fasciatus Cuvier 1830A75]

Dischistodus notopthalmus (Bleeker 1853)A75 [=Pomacentrus notopthalmusA75, Dichistodus notophthalmusM28; incl. P. montrouzieri Thiollière 1857M58, P. suluensis Seale 1909M28]

Dischistodus perspicillatus (Cuvier 1830)MM09 [=Pomacentrus perspicillatusA75; incl. P. bifasciatus Bleeker 1854A75, Dichistodus bifasciatusM28, P. frenatus De Vis 1885A75, Chromis humbug Whitley 1954A75]

Eupomacentrus albifasciatus (Bleeker 1861)A75, M58 [=Pomacentrus albifasciatusA75, E. (*Brachypomacentrus) albofasciatusM58, M28; incl. P. eclipticus Jordan & Seale 1906A75]

Eupomacentrus fasciolatus (Ogilby 1889) [=Pomacentrus fasciolatus; incl. Po. atrilabiatus Fowler 1946, Po. jenkinsi Jordan & Evermann 1903, Eupomacentrus marginatus Jenkins 1901, Pseudopomacentrus navalis Whitley 1964, E. paschalis Whitley 1929]A75

*Eupomacentrus lividus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)M28, S60 [=Chaetodon lividusS60, Pomacentrus lividusS60; incl. P. cyanospilus Meyer 1885M28, P. kumkum Montrouzier in Thiollière 1857 (n. n.)M58, P. obscurus Thiollière 1857M58, P. punctatus Q & G 1824S60]

Eupomacentrus nigricans (Lacépède 1803)A75 [=Holocentrus nigricansM58, Pomacentrus nigricansS60; incl. P. ater Bleeker 1879S60, P. nigripinnis Bliss 1883 (n. n.)S60, P. noir Lienard 1839S60, P. pristiger C & V 1833S60, P. scolopseus Quoy & Gaimard 1824S60, M28, P. scolopsis Günther 1873M58, P. taeniops C. & V 1830S60]

*Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon (Bleeker 1852)M28 [=Glyphisodon plagiometoponS60, Abudefduf plagiometoponM58, Glyphidodon plagiometoponS60; incl. A. melanopselion Fowler 1918M28, *Ctenoglyphidodon melanopselionM28]

*Neostegastes leucozonus (Bleeker 1859)A75, MM09 [=Glyphisodon leucozonaM28, Abudefduf leucozonusA75, Plectroglyphidodon leucozonusTMH04; incl. A. corneyi Jordan & Dickerson 1908A75]

Paraglyphidodon behni (Bleeker 1847)A75 [=Glyphisodon behniiA75, Abudefduf behniM58; incl. Chromis bitaeniatus Fowler & Bean 1928A75, A. filifer Weber 1913A75, Glyphisodon xanthurus Bleeker 1853A75, A. xanthurusS60, Chrysiptera xanthuraM28, Paraglyphidodon xanthurusM58]

Paraglyphidodon melanopus (Bleeker 1856)A75 [=Glyphisodon melanopusA75, Abudefduf melanopusS60, Glyphidodon melanopusS60; incl. Glyphisodon xanthonotus Bleeker 1859S60, Chrysiptera xanthonotaM28, Paraglyphidodon xanthonotaM28]

Paraglyphidodon melas (Cuvier 1830)A75 [=Glyphisodon melasS60, Abudefduf melasS60, Chrysiptera melasM28, Glyphidodon melasS60; incl. Glyphisodon ater Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830S60, Glyphisodon violascens Brevoort 1856M28]

Plectroglyphidodon (Oliglyphisodon) imparipennis (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875)A75, A01 [=Glyphisodon imparipennisA75, Abudefduf imparipennisS60]

Plectroglyphidodon (Plectroglyphidodon) dickii (Liénard 1839)A75, MM09 [=Glyphisodon dickiiA75, Abudefduf dickiS60, Glyphidodon dickiiS60; incl. Glyphisodon unifasciatus Kner & Steindachner 1867M28]

Plectroglyphidodon (Plectroglyphidodon) lacrymatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)A75, MM09 [=Glyphisodon lacrymatusA75, Abudefduf lacrymatusS60, Glyphidodon lacrymatusS60]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A75] Allen, G. R. 1975. Damselfishes of the South Seas. T.F.H.

[A01] Allen, J. R. 2001. Pomacentridae. Damselfishes (anemonefishes). In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) pp. 3337–3356. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[M28] Montalban, H. R. 1928. Pomacentridae of the Philippine Islands. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[MM09] Moore, G., & S. Morrison. 2009. Fishes of three North West Shelf atolls of Western Australia: Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 221–255.

[MM14] Moore, G. I., S. M. Morrison, J. B. Hutchins, G. R. Allen & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: fishes. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 161–206.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S60] Smith, J. L. B. 1960. Coral fishes of the family Pomacentridae from the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Ichthyological Bulletin 19: 317–349.

[TMH04] Tang, K. L., K. M. McNyset & N. I. Holcroft. 2004. The phylogenetic position of five genera (Acanthochromis, Azurina, Chrysiptera, Dischistodus, and Neopomacentrus) of damselfishes (Perciformes: Pomacentridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 823–828.

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