Pompilidae

Minagenia osoria, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.
Belongs within: Pompiloidea.
Contains: Ceropales, Ctenocerinae, Pompilinae, Leptodialepis, Calopompilus, Hemipepsis, Pepsini, Psoropempula, Ageniellini, Priocnemis, Dipogon.

The Pompilidae, spider hawks, are a cosmopolitan group of wasps that develop as predators or parasites of spiders.

Characters (from Shimizu 1994): Antenna usually with 13 segments in male, 12 segments in female. Maxillary galea usually with two separate sclerites, exogalea-1 and -2; maxillary palpus 6-segmented; postmentum present; labial palpus four-segmented. Pronotum freely articulating with mesothorax; anterior “collar” usually well developed; posterolateral lobes (pronotal lobes) reaching tegula and covering the first thoracic spiracle. Propleura posteriorly contiguous mesally. Prosternum sunken between bases of fore coxae except for its anterior section. Large area of intersegmental membrane present ventrally between pro- and mesothoraces. Prepectus discontinuous midventrally, the halves widely separated, extending the height of mesepisternum, being fused to it with the line of fusion forming a sulcus. Mesepisternum with a median straight oblique sulcus (posterior oblique sulcus). Mesepimeron much reduced posterodorsally on mesopleuron. Mesosternum with weak ridges or dentate projections anteromesal to midcoxal cavities. Meso- and metapleura not mutually movable although not fused. Metapostnotum often well developed, visible medially. Metepimeron slightly expanded anteroventral to endophragmal pit so that the pit is a short distance from anterior margin of metapleuron and pleural sulcus angulate. Metasternum entirely depressed except for slight ridges anterior to hind coxae, well differentiated from mesosternum, not anteriorly produced. Metapleural-propodeal sulcus entirely visible. Propodeal spiracle oblique. Forewing usually with ten closed cells. Hindwing with two closed cells and a jugal lobe; vein C+Sc+R+Rs fused basally, and C reduced to a pigmented relict vein after separating from Sc+R+Rs; free section of vein 1A absent, of vein Cu present. Basal hamuli strongly concentrated into a basal cluster at or basad to separation of vein Sc+R+S from margin. Claval furrow barely indicated. Legs usually slender and elongated. Each pair of coxae (fore, mid and hind) large and usually contiguous. Fore tibia with single calcar almost straight, not highly modified. Mid tibia with two spurs slightly dorsally flattened. Hind tibia with two spurs slightly dorsally flattened, the inner one modified as a calcar by development of basal brush of setae dorsally. Dense brush of short, erect setae on inner side of hind tibia usually well developed for its entire length. Each tarsal segment with plantula posteroventrally; arolia well developed. Female metasoma with six visible segments and male with seven segments. Spiracles exposed on the first and second terga but those on terga 3-6 or -7 often concealed by the preceding tergum. Each tergum overlapping its corresponding sternum laterally. Each sternum posteriorly overlapping front edge of the succeeding one; first sternum not depressed posteriorly. Female seventh tergum entirely hidden, but continuously sclerotized anteriorly; section 1 of gonocoxite 9 not completely divided; no lamellate valve dorsally on gonapophysis 8 (=lancet or valvula 1). Male sixth sternum with a pair of strongly sclerotized sharp hooks posteriorly; seventh sternum reduced, withdrawn beneath sixth and overlapping the apodeme-like central process of subgenital plate (eighth sternum); eighth sternum essentially simple, not reduced nor hidden; composite tergum 9-10 (abdominal tergum 10-11) with a cercus on its each side; genitalia with elongate parapenial lobes from section 2 of gonocoxite 9 (basiparamere) and often with basal hooklets on lamina volsellaris; gonapophysis 9 (aedeagus) with notal fusion well developed.

Pompilidae [Pompilii, Psammocharidae]
|–Ceropalinae [Ceratopalinae, Ceropalini] EG06
|    |–Ceropales E07
|    `–Irenangelus Schulz 1906 [incl. Xanthampulex Schulz 1906] E07
|         |–‘Agenia’ reversa Smith 1873 [incl. *Irenangelus hornus Schulz 1906] E07
|         |–I. eberhardi S94
|         |–I. ichneumonoides S94
|         |–‘Xanthampulex’ luzonensis S94
|         |–I pernix (Bingham 1896) [=Ceropales pernis, Xanthampulex pernix] S94
|         |–I. tenuatus (Turner 1910) [=Ceropales tenuatus] E07
|         `–*Xanthampulex’ trifur Schulz 1906 E07
`–+–+–Ctenocerinae EG06
|  `–Pompilinae EG06
`–Pepsinae [Cryptocheilinae, Macromerinae] EG06
|  i. s.: Cryptosalius H04
|         Austrosalius Turner 1917 E07
|           `–*A. artemis (Turner 1910) [=Ferreolomorpha artemis] E07
|         Derochorses Banks 1941 E07
|           `–*D. seminiger Banks 1941 E07
|         Java Pate 1946 [=Dichelonyx Haupt 1938 non Harris 1826] E07
|           |–*J. concolor (Taschenberg 1869) [=Priocnemis (Cyphononyx) concolor, *Dichelonyx concolor] E07
|           `–J. nigrita (Fabricius 1781) E07
|                |–J. n. nigrita E07
|                `–J. n. aspasia (Smith 1859) (see below for synonymy) E07
|         Leptodialepis E07
|         Paleogenia wahisi PK17
|         Diplonyx Saussure 1887 E07 [incl. Monodontonyx Haupt 1929 B38, E07]
|           |–‘Monodontonyx’ javanus B38
|           |–‘Monodontonyx’ plutonis Banks 1938 B38
|           `–‘Monodontonyx’ sericosoma B38
|         Taiwania Tsuneki 1989 T89
|           |–*T. formosana Tsuneki 1989 T89
|           `–T. rufotibialis Tsuneki 1989 T89
|         Poecilagenia Haupt 1927 T89
|           |–P. rubricans S94
|           `–P. sculpturata S94
|         Malloscelis Haupt 1936 S94
|           `–*M. formosus (Morawitz 1889) S94, T89 [=Salius formosus S94]
|         Clistoderes Banks 1934 T89
|           |  i. s.: C. onoi (Ishikawa 1955) [=Priocnemis onoi] T89
|           |         C. taiwanus Tsuneki 1989 T89
|           |         C. thione T89
|           |–C. (Clistoderes) iwatai S94
|           `–C. (Paraclistoderes Ishikawa 1962) S94
|                |–C. (P.) futabae S94
|                |–C. (P.) impunctatus S94
|                |–C. (P.) nakanei S94
|                `–C. (P.) shirozui S94
|         Lissocnemis T89
|           |–*L. irrasus T89
|           |–L. apollo (Banks 1934) [=Dinagenia apollo] T89
|           |–L. niger Tsuneki 1989 T89
|           `–L. nigricoxis Haupt 1941 T89
|         Taiwagenia Tsuneki 1989 T89
|           `–*T. taiwana Tsuneki 1989 T89
|–Chirodamus Townes 1957 S94, E07 [Chirodamini EG06]
|–Calopompilus S94
|–Hemipepsis S94
|–Pepsini S94
|–Plagicurgus Roig Alsina 1982 S94
|    `–P. metallicus S94
|–+–Pompilocalus Roig Alsina 1989 S94
|  |    `–P. fraternus S94
|  `–+–Aimatocare Roig Alsina 1989 S94
|     `–Anacyphonyx Banks 1946 S94
|–Cyphononyx Dahlbom 1845 S94
|    |–C. bipartitus (Lepeletier 1845) [=Salius bipartitus, Leptodialepis bipartitus] T89
|    |–C. bretoni S94
|    |–C. cameroni Banks 1938 B38
|    |–C. dorsalis (Lepeletier 1745) (see below for synonymy) T89
|    |–C. fugidipennis B38
|    |–C. gowdeyi (Turner 1918) E07
|    `–C. iridipennis (Smith 1859) S94, T90 (see below for synonymy)
`–+–Psoropempula S94
|–Ageniellini S94
|–+–Platydialepis Haupt 1941 S94
|  |    |–P. ryoheii (Ishikawa 1957) [=Malloscelis ryoheii] S94
|  |    `–P. taiwanianus (Tsuneki 1989) [=Malloscelis taiwanianus] S94
|  `–Priocnessus Banks 1925 S94
|       |–P. hurdi S94
|       |–P. nebulosus S94
|       `–P. nuperus S94
`–+–Priocnemis S94
|–Dipogon S94
|–Ctenopriocnemis Ishikawa 1962 S94
|    `–C. filicornis S94
|–Eopompilus Gussakovskij 1933 S94
|    |–E. internalis S94
|    `–E. minor S94
|–Caliadurgus Pate 1946 S94
|    |–C. bituberculatus S94
|    |–C. fasciatellus S94
|    |–C. kurosawai S94
|    `–C. ussuriensis (Gussakovskij 1933) (see below for synonymy) T89
|–Sphictostethus Kohl 1884 S94, E07 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–*S. gravesii (Haliday 1836) [=Pompilus gravesii] E07
|    |–S. aliciae (Turner 1914) [=Calopompilus aliciae, Priocnemis aliciae] E07
|    |–*Haploneura’ apogona Kohl 1884 [=*Haploneurion apogonum] E07
|    |–S. calvus H05
|    |–‘Pompilus’ flavipes Guérin-Méneville 1836 [=*Anapriocnemis flavipes] E07
|    |–S. fugax [=Pompilus fugax] E07
|    |–S. nitidus (Fabricius 1775) E07 (see below for synonymy)
|    `–S. xanthochrous (Turner 1915) [=Calopompilus xanthochrous, Priocnemis xanthochrous] E07
`–Minagenia Banks 1934 [Minageniini] S94
|–M. alticola Tsuneki 1989 T89
|–M. brevicornis T89
|–M. granulosa Tsuneki 1989 T89
|–M. julia S94
|–M. montisdorsa S94
|–M. osoria S94
|–M. pempuchiensis Tsuneki 1989 T89
`–M. taiwana Tsuneki 1989 T89

Pompilidae incertae sedis:
Priocnemioides Rad. 1888 H37
`–P. unifasciatus H37
Ceropalites infelix Cockerell 1906 EG06
Planiceps Latreille 1825 S94 [Planicepinae R70]
|–P. aureovestitus Turner 1910 E07
`–P. fulviventris R13
Atelostegus Haupt 1929 S94
Pygmachus Haupt 1930 S94
Dromochares Haupt 1930 S94
Gonaporus Ashmead 1902 S94
Taeniaporus Haupt 1930 S94
Aeluropetrus Arnold 1936 S94
Rhynchopompilus Arnold 1934 S94
Euplaniceps Haupt 1930 S94
Aspidaporus Bradley 1944 S94
Odontaporus Bradley 1944 S94
Cosmiaporus Bradley 1944 S94
Drepanaporus Bradley 1944 S94
Rhabdaporus Bradley 1944 S94
Tupiaporus Arlé 1947 S94
Abripepsis Banks 1946 S94
Hatanomus Tsuneki 1990 T90
`–*H. granulosus Tsuneki 1990 T90

Caliadurgus ussuriensis (Gussakovskij 1933) [=Caricurgus ussuriensis; incl. Car. shirakii Yasumatsu 1943] T89

Cyphononyx dorsalis (Lepeletier 1745) [=Calicurgus dorsalis, Pompilus dorsalis, Priocnemis dorsalis, Salius dorsalis; incl. Salius flavus Bingham 1897, Cyphononyx flavus, Cryptoceilus flavus, Pallosoma fulvognathus Rohwer 1911, Cyphononyx fulvognathus] T89

Cyphononyx iridipennis (Smith 1859) S94, T90 [=Cryptochilus (Cyphononyx) iridipennis T90, Dichelonyx iridipennis T90, Macromeris iridipennis T90, Salius iridipennis T90; incl. Mignimia pulchripennis Smith 1875 T90, Cyphononyx pulchripennis T90]

Java nigrita aspasia (Smith 1859) [=Mygnimia aspasia, Cryptocheilus aspasia, Cyphononyx aspasia, Dichelonyx aspasia, Salius aspasia] E07

Sphictostethus Kohl 1884 S94, E07 [=Sphictonotus (l. c.) E07; incl. Anapriocnemis Haupt 1959 E07, Chrysocurgus Haupt 1937 H37, Haploneura Kohl 1884 non Loew 1850 E07, Haploneurion Kohl 1884 E07]

Sphictostethus nitidus (Fabricius 1775) E07 [=Sphex nitida E07, *Chrysocurgus nitidus E07; incl. Priocnemis wakefieldi H37]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B38] Banks, N. 1938. Some Psammocharidae from Singapore. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 236–249.

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[EG06] Engel, M. S., & D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. The first Cretaceous spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 79 (4): 359–368.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Priocnemis (Trichochurgus) monachus (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) preying on Misgolas napua Forster (Mygalomorphae: Idiophidae) after opening the lids of the prey’s burrows, and notes of the affinities of Trichocurgus Haupt. Weta 27: 13–14.

[H05] Harris, A. C. 2005. House sparrows (Passer domesticus) repeatedly robbing red spider wasps (Sphictostethus nitidus) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of their paralysed spider prey (Neoramia otagoa) (Araneae: Agelenidae). Weta 29: 21–23.

[H37] Haupt, H. 1937. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Psammochariden-Fauna Australiens (Spinnenfangende Wegwespen). Subf. Claveliinae Hpt. Trib. Calicurgini nov. Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften 91: 121–136.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[S94] Shimizu, A. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Tokyo Metropolitan University Bulletin of Natural History 2: 1–142.

[T89] Tsuneki, K. 1989. A study on the Pompilidae of Taiwan (Hymenoptera). Special Publications of the Japan Hymenopterists Association 35: 1–180.

[T90] Tsuneki, K. 1990. The Pompilidae of the Ryukyus (Hymenoptera). Special Publications of the Japan Hymenopterists Association 36: 1–65.

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