Ponera pennsylvanica, copyright Tom Murray.

Belongs within: Ponerinae.

Ponera is a genus of generalised ponerine ants characterised by triangular mandibles, a single large pectinate spur on the hind tarsus, and a subpetiolar process bearing a distinct fenestra anteriorly.

<==Ponera Latreille 1804 [incl. Pseudocryptopone Emery 1900, Pteroponera Bernard 1950, Selenopone Wheeler 1933] Z01
|–P. coarctata (Latreille 1802) [=Formica coarctata; incl. F. contracta Latreille 1802, *Ponera contracta] TB85
|–P. alisana Z01
|–P. andrei Emery 1901 E14
|–P. ceylonensis Mayr 1897 B03
|–P. chihponensis Z01
|–P. clavicornis Emery 1900 TB85
|–P. confinis Roger 1860 [incl. P. confinis var. aitkeni, P. confinis var. wroughtoni] B03
|–P. crassa E89
|–P. eduardi M83
|–P. exotica WW90
|–P. gleadowi Forel 1887 B03
|–P. guangxiensis Zhou 2001 Z01
|–P. leae Forel 1913 (see below for synonymy) TB85
|–P. leeuwenhoecki E89
|–P. oculata Smith 1858 TB85
|–P. paedericera Zhou 2001 Z01
|–P. pennsylvanica Buckley 1866 NT01 [=P. coarctata pennsylvanica WW90]
|–P. selenophora Emery 1900 TB85
|–P. swezeyi (Wheeler 1933) FT08
|–P. taipingensis H03
|–P. trigona E14
|–P. truncata Smith 1861 B03
`–P. yakushimensis Tanaka 1974 I92

Ponera leae Forel 1913 [incl. P. exedra Wilson 1957, P. leae norfolkensis Wheeler 1935, P. leae oculata Wheeler 1927 non P. oculata Smith 1858] TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

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