Brachypodium distachyon, photographed by Neil Harris.

Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Phalarideae, Piptochaetium, Meliceae, Stipeae, Triticum, Hordeum, AgropyronElymusLolium, Festuca, Bromus, Vulpia, Trisetum, Poa, Avena, Agrostis, Deschampsia, Puccinellia, Calamagrostis, Polypogon, Deyeuxia.

The Pooideae is a clade of grasses characterised by the loss of stylar fusion (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Many pooids also possess multiple florets per spikelet and lack multicellular microhairs. Members of the clade include a number of significant grain species, such as wheat (Triticum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena) and barley (Hordeum), and a number of major pasture grasses. In contrast, some species of Nassella (needle grasses) are regarded as weeds in pasture because of their low palatability for livestock.

The basalmost member of the subfamily is the genus Brachyelytrum, a perennial grass with solitary spikelets borne in panicles, with persistent but very short glumes, found in Asia and North America. Matgrass Nardus stricta is a tough, unpalatable species that grows on nutrient-poor soils in Eurasia and North America.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or neither), herbaceous. Culms hollow (rarely solid). Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent; adaxial ligule scarious or membranous, the margin not or infrequently short ciliate fringed (rarely long ciliate); blades somewhat broad to usually narrow, rarely pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths sometimes auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or paniculate, bracts outside of the spikelets absent or rarely present. Spikelets bisexual, infrequently unisexual or mixed, usually with two glumes (rarely without glumes or the first absent except on terminal spikelets), 1 to many female-fertile florets with apical or infrequently basal reductions, compressed laterally, infrequently not or dorsally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes (infrequently below the glumes or at the nodes of the inflorescence); lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea usually present and well developed, but variable and sometimes very reduced or absent; lodicules 2 (rarely 3, fused, or absent), usually lanceolate, broadly membranous apically (sometimes fleshy, truncate), often lobed, obscurely few-nerved, or infrequently more or less distinctly few-nerved, not or conspicuously ciliate on the margins; stamens usually 3 (infrequently 1 or 2); ovary glabrous or pubes- cent, rarely with an apical appendage or rostellum, haustorial synergids absent, styles usually 2, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum linear and up to as long as the fruit, or subbasal and punctiform, linear, ellipsoidal, ovate, or circular and less than 1/3 the length of the fruit; endosperm hard or sometimes soft or liquid, with or without lipids, containing compound starch grains, or simple starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present (rarely absent), scutellar cleft absent (rarely present, but not deeply incised), mesocotyl internode absent (rarely short), embryonic leaf margins meeting (infrequently margins overlapping). Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Foliar anatomy: Mesophyll nonradiate, adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent, arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib simple; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar micromorphology: Stomata with parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs absent (rarely present, where chloridoid or panicoid), unicellular microhairs absent (rarely present); papillae usually absent, when present rarely more than one per long cell. Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Pooideae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Brachyelytrum [Brachyelytreae]GPWG01
    |    `--B. erectumGPWG01
    |         |--B. e. var. erectumV72
    |         `--B. e. var. septentrionaleV72
    `--+--+--Nardus [Nardeae]GPWG01
       |  |    `--N. strictaGPWG01
       |  `--Lygeum [Lygeeae]GPWG01
       |       `--L. spartumGPWG01
          `--+--+--+--Anisopogon avenaceusGPWG01 [=Deyeuxia avenaceaB78; incl. Danthonia anisopogonB78]
             |  |  `--Phaenosperma [Phaenospermatideae]GPWG01
             |  |       `--P. globosumGPWG01
             |  `--+--StipeaeG52
             |     `--Ampelodesmos [Ampelodesmeae]GPWG01
             |          `--A. mauritanicaGPWG01
             `--+--Diarrhena [Diarrheneae]GPWG01
                |    |--D. americanaGPWG01
                |    `--D. obovataGPWG01
                `--+--+--Trachynia Link 1827GR98
                   |  |    `--T. platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy)GR98
                   |  `--Brachypodium [Brachypodieae]GPWG01
                   |       |--B. distachyon (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812GPWG01, PL04 [=Trachynia distachyaGR98]
                   |       |--B. mexicanumGPWG01
                   |       |--B. pinnatum (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812PL04 [incl. B. phoenicoidesH93]
                   |       |--B. ramosumC74
                   |       |--B. retusumPT98
                   |       `--B. sylvaticumS03
                   `--+--+--Triticeae [Hordeae]A05
                      |  |    |--TriticumGPWG01
                      |  |    |--HordeumA05
                      |  |    |--AustralopyrumA05
                      |  |    |--AgropyronC06
                      |  |    |--Secale cerealeV72, E-SM02
                      |  |    |--ElymusV72
                      |  |    |--LoliumS06
                      |  |    |--AsperellaC06
                      |  |    |    |--A. gracilis Kirk 1895 [=Gymnostichum gracile]C06
                      |  |    |    `--A. laevis Petrie 1895C06
                      |  |    |--ParapholisV72
                      |  |    |    |--P. incurva (see below for synonymy)G52
                      |  |    |    `--P. strigosaH93
                      |  |    `--Hystrix Moench 1794 non Linnaeus 1758 (ICZN)V72, KC01
                      |  |         `--H. patula [incl. Elymus hystrix]V72
                      |  |              |--H. p. f. patulaV72
                      |  |              `--H. p. f. bigelovianaV72
                      |  `--FestuceaeC06
                      |       |--FestucaGPWG01
                      |       |--BromusGPWG01
                      |       |--Lamarckia aureaG52, K10 [=Chrysurus aureusB78, Cynosurus aureusB78]
                      |       |--Psammagrostis wiseana Gardn. & Hubb. 1938G52
                      |       |--VulpiaG52
                      |       |--TrisetumC06
                      |       |--Avellinia micheliiG52, PT98
                      |       |--Scleropoa rigidaG52 (see below for synonymy)
                      |       |--MunroaS06
                      |       |    |--M. benthamianaS06
                      |       |    `--M. squarrosa [incl. Monroa argentina, Munroa mendocina]S06
                      |       |--Dactylis glomerata Linnaeus 1753S06, PL04 [=Festuca glomerataS06]
                      |       |    |--D. g. ssp. glomerataPL04
                      |       |    `--D. g. ssp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman 1882PL04
                      |       |--TriraphisG52
                      |       |    |--T. microdonB78
                      |       |    `--T. mollis Br. 1810G52
                      |       |         |--T. m. var. mollisB78
                      |       |         `--T. m. var. humilisB78
                      |       |--SerrafalcusG52
                      |       |    |--S. arenarius (Labill.) Gardner 1952G52 [=Bromus arenariusG52; incl. B. australisC06]
                      |       |    |    |--S. a. var. arenariusB78
                      |       |    |    `--‘Bromus’ a. var. macrostachyaB78
                      |       |    `--S. patulus [=Bromus patulus]G52
                      |       |--AtropisC06
                      |       |    |--A. convolutaS06
                      |       |    |    |--A. c. var. convolutaS06
                      |       |    |    `--A. c. var. mendozina Hackel in Stuckert 1906S06
                      |       |    |--A. distans [=Glyceria distans]C06
                      |       |    `--A. novae-zealandiae (Petrie) Hackel in Cheeseman 1906 (see below for synonymy)C06
                      |       |--DiplachneS06
                      |       |    |--D. carinata (Gris.) Hackel 1900 [=Atropis carinata Gris. 1879]S06
                      |       |    |--D. chloridiformis Hackel in Stuckert 1906S06
                      |       |    |--D. dubiaS06
                      |       |    |--D. latifoliaS06
                      |       |    |--D. muelleri Benth. 1878G52
                      |       |    |--D. panicularisB78
                      |       |    |--D. parviflora (Br.) Benth. 1878 [=Triodia parviflora; incl. Festuca brownii]G52
                      |       |    |--D. spicataS06
                      |       |    `--D. verticillata Nees & Meyen 1843 (see below for synonymy)S06
                      |       |--BrizaS06 [incl. ChascolytrumB78]
                      |       |    |--B. elegans [=Calotheca elegans; incl. Briza brizoides, Bromus brizoides]S06
                      |       |    |--B. humilis Bieberstein 1808PL04
                      |       |    |--B. maximaS03
                      |       |    |--B. mediaC55
                      |       |    |--B. minor Linnaeus 1753S06 [incl. B. virensB78]
                      |       |    |--B. strictaS06
                      |       |    `--B. trilobaS06
                      |       |         |--B. t. f. trilobaS06
                      |       |         `--B. t. f. pumilaS06
                      |       `--EctrosiaG52
                      |            |--E. agrostoidesLK14
                      |            |--E. danesii Domin 1915G52
                      |            |--E. gulliveriB78
                      |            |--E. lasiocladaLK14
                      |            |--E. leporina [incl. E. spadicea]B78
                      |            |    |--E. l. var. leporinaLK14
                      |            |    `--E. l. var. micranthaLK14
                      |            |--E. scabrida Hubb. 1936G52
                      |            `--E. schultzii Benth. 1878G52
                      `--Poeae [Agrosteae, Aveneae]GPWG01
                           |--Triplasis purpureaV72
                           |--Schizachne purpurascens [incl. Melica striata]V72
                           |--Mibora minima [=Agrostis minima, Chamagrostis minima; incl. Knappia agrostidea]G52
                           |--Lagurus ovatus Linnaeus 1753G52, PL04
                           |--DiplopogonG52 [incl. DipogoniaB78]
                           |    `--D. setaceus Br. 1810 [=Dipogonia setacea]G52
                           |    |--C. cristatusC06
                           |    `--C. echinatus Linnaeus 1753PL04
                           |    |--A. interruptaH93
                           |    `--A. spica-venti [=Agrostis spica-venti]V27
                           |    |--A. arenariaSE03 [=Arundo arenariaG52; incl. Am. arundinaceaSE03]
                           |    `--A. breviligulataH93
                           |--Calamovilfa longifoliaV72
                           |    |--C. l. var. longifoliaV72
                           |    `--C. l. var. magnaV72
                           |--Milium effusumV72
                           |    |--M. e. var. effusumV72
                           |    `--M. e. var. cisatlanticumV72
                           |    |--C. arundinaceaV72
                           |    |--C. bolanderiH93
                           |    `--C. latifoliaH93
                           |    |--S. intermediaV72
                           |    |--S. nitidaV72
                           |    `--S. obtusataH93
                           |    |--H. lanatusBH02
                           |    |--H. mollisC06
                           |    `--H. setigerGK00
                           |    |--A. fluitans Kirk 1884C06
                           |    |--A. neesii Steud. 1854G52 (see below for synonymy)
                           |    `--A. vickeryaeGK00
                           |    |--G. australeC06
                           |    |--G. phleoidesGR98
                           |    `--G. ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913PL04 (see below for synonymy)
                           |    |--A. avenaceumC06
                           |    `--A. elatiusH93 [=Avena elatiorB78; incl. Ar. elatius ssp. bulbosumH93]
                           |         |--A. e. f. elatiusV72
                           |         `--A. e. f. biaristatumV72
                           |    |--E. caespitosusB00
                           |    `--E. ovatus (Forst.) Beauv. 1812G52 (see below for synonymy)
                           |         |--E. o. var. ovatusG52
                           |         `--E. o. var. pubiglumisG52
                           |    |--K. albescensBBM02
                           |    |--K. kurtzii Hackel in Kurtz 1899 (see below for synonymy)C06
                           |    |--K. macranthaH93 [incl. K. cristata Gris. 1874 (preoc.)H93, C06]
                           |    |--K. phleoides (Vill.) Pers. 1805 [=Festuca phleoides Vill. 1787]S06
                           |    `--K. splendens Presl 1820PL04
                           |    |--P. alpinum Lin. 1753S06
                           |    |--P. arenariumG88
                           |    |--P. graecumPT98
                           |    |    |--P. g. ssp. graecumPT98
                           |    |    `--P. g. ssp. aegaeumPT98
                           |    |--P. paniculatumH91
                           |    `--P. pratenseLNB03
                           |    |--A. caryophylleaGK00
                           |    |--A. cupanianaOS04
                           |    |--A. elegantissima Schur 1853PL04 [incl. A. elegans (nom. illeg.)H93]
                           |    |--A. flexuosaC55
                           |    |--A. montevidensisD03
                           |    |    |--A. m. var. montevidensisD03
                           |    |    `--A. m. var. submuticaD03
                           |    `--A. praecoxPAE98
                           |    |--D. crinita (L.f.) Hook. f. 1853G52 (see below for synonymy)
                           |    |    |--D. c. var. crinitaC06
                           |    |    `--D. c. var. intermedia Hack. in Cheeseman 1906C06
                           |    |--D. minorG52
                           |    `--D. sciurea (Br.) Hook. f. 1853G52 (see below for synonymy)
                           |         |--D. s. var. sciureaC06
                           |         |--D. s. var. inaequiglumis Hack. in Cheeseman 1906C06
                           |         `--D. s. var. setifoliaB78
                                |--A. aequalis [incl. A. aequalis var. sonomensis]H93
                                |--A. agrestisC06
                                |--A. alpinusD03
                                |--A. australis Nees 1843G52
                                |--A. carolinianusH93
                                |--A. geniculatus [incl. A. pallescens]H93
                                |--A. myosuroidesTG88
                                |--A. pratensisC55
                                `--A. saccatus [incl. A. howellii]H93
Pooideae incertae sedis:
  Echinaria capitataGPWG01, Y98
    |--S. coeruleaR91
    |--S. rigidaH09
    `--S. sphaerocephalaPS98
    |--R. cristataPT98
    |--R. pumilaAGF98
    `--R. salzmanniiGR98
         |--R. s. ssp. salzmannii [=Koeleria pubescens var. salzmanni]GR98
         `--R. s. ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy)GR98
  Brylkinia [Brylkinieae]GPWG01
  Simplicia laxa Kirk 1897C06
    |--M. diffusa Willd. 1797S06
    |--M. nana Benth. 1846S06
    `--M. peruviana [=Clomena peruviana Beauv. 1812; incl. M. clomena]S06
    |--L. alopecuroidesS06
    `--L. phleoidesS06
    |--E. arundinacea [=Sporobolus arundinaceus]S06
    `--E. coeruleaS06
         |--E. c. var. coeruleaS06
         `--E. c. var. submutica Hackel in Stuckert 1906S06
  Pentapogon billardieri [incl. Stipa pentapogon, Agrostis quadrifida]B78
    |--P. b. var. billardieriB78
    `--P. b. var. parviflorusB78

Amphibromus neesii Steud. 1854G52 [incl. Danthonia archeriB78, Am. junceus msB78, Am. nervosusB78, Avena nervosaB78, Danthonia nervosaB78]

Atropis novae-zealandiae (Petrie) Hackel in Cheeseman 1906 [=Glyceria novae-zealandiae Petrie 1901; incl. Poa walkeri Kirk 1885]C06

Dichelachne crinita (L.f.) Hook. f. 1853G52 [=Agrostis crinitaC06, Anthoxanthum crinitumC06, Muehlenbergia crinitaB78; incl. Dichelachne comataB78, D. forsteriana Trin. & Rupr. 1842C06, D. hookeriana Trin. & Rupr. 1842C06, D. longisetaB78, Muehlenbergia mollicomaB78]

Dichelachne sciurea (Br.) Hook. f. 1853G52 [=Agrostis sciureaC06, Muehlenbergia sciureaG52; incl. Dichelachne micranthaG52, Stipa micranthaC06, D. montanaC06, Agrostis raraG52, D. sieberiana Trin. & Rupr. 1842C06, D. vulgarisB78]

Diplachne verticillata Nees & Meyen 1843 [incl. Leptochloa imbricata Turb. 1880, D. imbricata (Thurb.) Scribn. 1891, Rhabdochloa imbricata (Thurb.) OK. 1891]S06

Echinopogon ovatus (Forst.) Beauv. 1812G52 [=Agrostis ovataC06, Cinna ovataC06; incl. Hystericina alopecuroidesC06, Echinopogon sieberiB78]

Gastridium ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913PL04 [=Agrostis ventricosaG52; incl. G. lendigerumG52, Milium lendigerumG52]

Koeleria kurtzii Hackel in Kurtz 1899 [incl. K. bergii var. fallacina Domin 1906, K. micrathera Griseb. 1879 non Trisetum micratherum]C06

Parapholis incurva [=Aegilops incurva, Pholiurus incurvus; incl. Lepturus incurvatus, Ph. incurvatus]G52

Pooideae [Agrostideae, Agrostidoideae, Anthoxanthoideae, Avenoideae, Cynosuroideae, Echinarioideae, Festucoideae, Glycerioideae, Hordeoideae, Phalaroideae, Secaloideae]

Rostraria salzmannii ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Koeleria salzmannii var. maroccana Domin 1907, K. pubescens var. maroccana]GR98

Scleropoa rigidaG52 [=Poa rigidaG52, Desmazeria rigida (Linnaeus) Tutin 1952PL04, Festuca rigidaG52]

Trachynia platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Brachypodium distachyon var. platystachyon Balansa ex Cosson in Cosson & Durieu 1855, B. distachyon subvar. platystachyon (Balansa) St.-Yves 1934]GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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