Aponogeton crispus, from Wikimedia.

Belongs within: Alismatanae.
Contains: Potamogetonaceae.

The Potamogetonales are a group of aquatic flowering plants found in marine or fresh water. Members include the freshwater Aponogeton, found in the Old World tropics and subtropics, which bear long-petioled, submerged and/or floating leaves, and flowers in spikes (borne singly or in clusters of two to ten) with flowers sessile (Yadav & Gaikwad 2003).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980, as Potamogetonales + Apogetonales): Fresh-water or marine rhizomatous perennials. Leaves linear to orbicular or oblong, sheathing at base; sheath often ligule-like above. Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual, flowers in spikes or solitary, ebracteate. Perianth-segments 1–4 or 0. Stamens 1–6. Carpels 1–6.

    |–Cymodoceaceae [Cymodoceales] HL09
    |    |–Halodule wrightii H93
    |    |–Thalassodendron Hartog 1970 HL09
    |    |    `–T. ciliatum (Forsskål) Hartog 1970 [=Zostera ciliata Forsskål 1775] HL09
    |    `–Cymodocea DS04 [incl. Amphibolis B78]
    |         |–C. antarctica (see below for synonymy) B78
    |         |–C. ciliata B78
    |         |–C. isoetifolia B78
    |         |–C. nodosa GFW98
    |         `–C. serrulata [=Caulinia serrulata] B78
    `–+–+–Potamogetonaceae DS04
       |  `–Ruppia Linnaeus 1753 ME70 [Ruppiaceae HE80]
       |       |–R. cirrhosa [incl. R. spiralis] H93
       |       |–R. maritima Y98
       |       |    |–R. m. var. maritima C06
       |       |    |–R. m. var. occidentalis V72
       |       |    `–R. m. var. rostellata C06
       |       |–R. megacarpa Mason 1967 ME70
       |       |–R. polycarpa Mason 1967 ME70
       |       `–R. tuberosa KM08
       `–Aponogetonales HE80
            |–Zosteraceae HE80
            |    |–Phyllospadix H93
            |    |    |–P. iwatensis B79
            |    |    |–P. scouleri H93
            |    |    `–P. torreyi H93
            |    `–Zostera Linnaeus 1753 ME70
            |         |  i. s.: Z. hornemanniana PP64
            |         |         Z. marina [incl. Z. marina var. latifolia] H93
            |         |         Z. nana A27
            |         |         Z. noltii BD95
            |         |         Z. pacifica [incl. Z. asiatica] H93
            |         |         Z. tasmanica Martens ex Aschers. 1867–1868 C06
            |         `–Z. sect. Zosterella ME70
            |              |–Z. capricorni Aschers. 1876 ME70
            |              `–Z. muelleri Irmisch ex Aschers. 1867 [incl. Z. novazelandica Setchell 1933] ME70
            `–Aponogeton Linnaeus 1781 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |–*A. natans (Linnaeus) Engl. & Krause 1906 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |–A. abyssinicus YG03
                 |–A. appendiculatus Bruggen 1968 YG03
                 |–A. azureus CV06
                 |–A. bruggenii Yadav & Govekar 1994 YG03
                 |–A. crispus Thunberg 1781 (see below for synonymy) YG03
                 |–A. decaryi YG03
                 |–A. distachyus Linnaeus 1781 [=A. distachyon] HE80
                 |–A. elongatus B78
                 |–A. euryspermus LK14
                 |–A. fenestralis M16
                 |–A. kimberleyensis LK14
                 |–A. lakhonensis Camus 1909 [incl. A. luteus, A. pygmaeus Krause 1910] YG03
                 |–*Uvirandra’ madagascariensis Mirbel 1802 [=Urirandra madagascariensis] YG03
                 |–A. satarensis Sundararagh., Kulkarni & Yadav 1982 YG03
                 `–A. undulatus Roxburgh 1832 (see below for synonymy) YG03

Aponogeton Linnaeus 1781 [=Amogeton Necker 1790 (nom. inv.); incl. Uvirandra Mirbel 1802, Urirandra; Aponogetonaceae, Aponogetonineae] YG03

Aponogeton crispus Thunberg 1781 [=A. crispum; incl. A. echinatus Roxburgh 1832, A. echinatum] YG03

*Aponogeton natans (Linnaeus) Engl. & Krause 1906 [=*Amogeton natans; incl. Parua kelanga, A. monostachyon Linnaeus 1782, Spathium monostachyum Edgew. 1843] YG03

Aponogeton undulatus Roxburgh 1832 [=A. undulatum, Spathium undulatum (Roxburgh) Edgew. 1843, Ouvirandra undulata (Roxburgh) Edgew. 1844; incl. Aponogeton microphyllum Roxburgh 1832, Spathium microphyllum (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, A. stachyosporus de Wit 1958] YG03

Cymodocea antarctica [=Amphibolis antarctica, Caulinia antarctica, Ruppia antarctica; incl. Amphibolis zosterifolia] B78

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Part 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[BD95] Bakalem, A., & J.-C. Dauvin. 1995. Inventaire des crustacés amphipodes (Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea) des costes d’Algérie: essai de synthèse. Mésogée 54: 49–62.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GFW98] Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle & R. Wollast. 1998. Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 405–434.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M16] Maiden, J. H. 1916. Exhibit. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (4): xix–xx.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R., & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 39–76.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 5 January 2022.

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