Jaw of Anchomomys cf. gaillardi, from Stehlin (1903).

Belongs within: Euarchonta.
Contains: Tarsiiformes, Anthropoidea, Adapiformes, Lorisiformes, Lemuriformes.

The Primates are a group of relatively generalised mammals characterised by an enlarged brain, a post-orbital bar in the skull, relatively convergent orbits, and nails on at least some of the digits (Groves 1991).

<==Primates [Euprimates, Pachylemuridae, Prosimii, Simiilemuriformes]
    |--Haplorhini [Omomyiformes]NG13
    |    |  i. s.: CopelemurG91
    |    |         KohatiusG91
    |    |--TarsiiformesNG13
    |    `--AnthropoideaNG13
         |  i. s.: PetrolemuridaeG91
         |           |--PetrolemurG91
         |           `--LushiusG91
         |         AzibiidaeR06
         |           |--AzibiusG91
         |           `--Dralestes Tabuce et al. 2004R06
         |         Algeripithecus minutusCC12, SS05
         |         Panobius russelliSP09
         |--+--+--Asiadapis cambayensisNG13
         |  |  `--Marcgodinotius indicusSP09, NG13
         |  `--Donrussellia Szalay 1976NG13, SM93
         |       |--D. gallicaNG13
         |       `--D. magnaNW03
         `--+--‘Donrussellia’ provincialisNG13
                  |  `--AnchomomyinaeG91
                  |       |--Fendantia Schwartz & Tattersall 1983G91
                  |       |--HuerzelerisG91
                  |       `--Anchomomys Stehlin 1916SP09, S62
                  |            |--A. gaillardi Stehlin 1916S62
                  |            |--A. latidens Teilhard 1916S62
                  |            |--A. pygmaeus (Rütimeyer 1891)S62
                  |            `--A. quercyi Stehlin 1916S62
                  `--+--‘Anchomomys’ milleriSP09
                     `--+--Djebelemur martinezi Hartenberger & Marandat 1992SP09, GH99
                        `--+--Pronycticebus Grandidier 1904NG13, S62
                           |    `--P. gaudryi Grandidier 1904S62
                                 `--Karanisia Seiffert, Simons & Attia 2003SP09, SSA03
                                      |--*K. clarki Seiffert, Simons & Attia 2003SSA03
                                      `--K. arenula Jaeger, Beard et al. 2010JB10
Primates incertae sedis:
  Simia Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. abeliiB41
    |--S. aethiops Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. apedia Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. aygula Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. cephus Linnaeus 1748L58
    |--S. cynamolgos Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. diana Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. entellus Dufresne 1797D97
    |--S. faunus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. hamadryas Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. inuusT99
    |--S. macacusT99
    |--S. maimonT99
    |--S. morioO41
    |--S. mormonG97
    |--S. morta Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. nemeusD97
    |--S. satyrus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. silenus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. sphinx Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. sylvanus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. syrichta Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--S. troglodytesT99
    `--S. wurmbiiO41
  Mytonius Robinson 1968W96
    |--M. hopsoniP96
    `--M. travisi (Mason 1990) [=Yaquius travisi]W96
  Stenops gracilisT99
  Otolicnus crassicaudatusT99
  Troglodytes nigerF41

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B41] Brooke, J. 1841. Relating to the habits and points of distinction in the orangs of Borneo. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 55–60.

[CC12] Chaimanee, Y., O. Chavasseau, K. C. Beard, A. A. Kyaw, A. N. Soe, C. Sein, V. Lazzari, L. Marivaux, B. Marandat, M. Swe, M. Rugbumrung, T. Lwin, X. Valentin, Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein & J.-J. Jaeger. 2012. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (26): 10293–10297.

[D97] Dufresne, C. 1797. Sur une nouvelle espèce de singe. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (7): 49.

[F41] Fraser, L. 1841. Letter. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 97.

[G97] Geoffroy, É. L. 1797. Extrait d’un mémoire sur les orang-outangs. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (4): 25–26.

[GH99] Gheerbrant, E., & J.-L. Hartenberger. 1999. Nouveau mammifère insectivore (?Lipotyphla, ?Erinaceomorpha) de l’Eocène inférieur de Chambi (Tunisie). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1–2): 143–156.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JB10] Jaeger, J.-J., K. C. Beard, Y. Chaimanee, M. Salem, M. Benammi, O. Hlal, P. Coster, A. A. Bilal, P. Duringer, M. Schuster, X. Valentin, B. Marandat, L. Marivaux, E. Métais, O. Hammuda & M. Brunet. 2010. Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids. Nature 467: 1095–1098.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MW01] Marivaux, L., J.-L. Welcomme, P.-O. Antoine, G. Métais, I. M. Baloch, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee, S. Ducrocq & J.-J. Jaeger. 2001. A fossil lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan. Science 294: 587–591.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[NW03] Ni, X., Y. Wang, Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. A euprimate skull from the early Eocene of China. Nature 427: 65–68.

[P96] Prothero, D. R. 1996. Magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Middle Eocene Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 3–24. Cambridge University Press.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118–1121.

[SSA03] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons & Y. Attia. 2003. Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Nature 422: 421–424.

[SS05] Seiffert, E. R., E. L. Simons, W. C. Clyde, J. B. Rossie, Y. Attia, T. M. Bown, P. Chatrath & M. E. Mathison. 2005. Basal anthropoids from Egypt and the antiquity of Africa’s higher primate radiation. Science 310: 300–304.

[S62] Simons, E. L. 1962. A new Eocene primate genus, Cantius, and a revision of some allied European lemuroids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 7 (1): 1–36.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T99] Tandler, J. 1899. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Kopfarterien bei den Mammalia. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematische-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien 67: 677–784, pls 1–8.

[W96] Walsh, S. L. 1996. S. Middle Eocene mammal faunas of San Diego County, California. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 75–119. Cambridge University Press.

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