Prioniodinidae

 Sa element of Oulodus panuarensis, from Institute of Geology at TUT.

Belongs within: Prioniodinida.
Contains: Ligonodininae, Bactrognathidae, Gondolellidae, Ellisoniidae.

The Prioniodinidae are a family of conodonts with sexi- or septimembrate apparatus including digyrate P and S elements. Taxa assigned to the Prioniodinidae are known from the Middle Ordovician to the end of the Carboniferous, though they also included the ancestors of the Gondolellidae and Ellisoniidae that survived into the Late Triassic (Sweet 1988).

Members of the early genus Oulodus are characteristic of shallow subtidal environments from the late Middle Ordovician to the beginning of the Devonian (Sweet 1988).

<==Prioniodinidae [Neoprioniodontinae]
    |--Pristognathus Stone & Furnish 1959S88
    |    `--*P. bighornensis Stone & Furnish 1959H62
    |--Erika Murphy & Matti 1982S88
    |    `--E. divaricaS88
    |--+--LonchodininaeH62
    |  |    |--Lonchodina Bassler 1925S88
    |  |    |    `--*L. typicalis Ulrich & Bassler 1926H62
    |  |    |--Trichonodella Branson & Mehl 1948 (see below for synonymy)H62
    |  |    |    |--*T. prima (Branson & Mehl 1933) [=*Trichognathus prima]H62
    |  |    |    `--T. inconstansTC71
    |  |    `--Apatognathus Branson & Mehl 1934S88
    |  |         `--*A. varians Branson & Mehl 1934H62
    |  `--Prioniodina Bassler 1925S88 [incl. Prioniodella Bassler 1925H62]
    |       |--*P. subcurvata Ulrich & Bassler 1926H62
    |       |--‘Prioniodella’ anguineaRR79
    |       |--‘Prioniodella’ cteniformaRR79
    |       `--‘Prioniodella’ decrescensRR79
    |--+--BactrognathidaeS88
    |  `--+--Kladognathus Rexroad 1958S88 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |    |--*K. prima (Rexroad 1957) [=*Cladognathus prima]H62
    |     |    `--*Lambdagnathus’ fragilidens Rexroad 1958H62
    |     `--+--GondolellidaeS88
    |        |--EllisoniidaeS88
    |        `--Idioprioniodus Gunnell 1933S88
    |             |--I. conjunctusS88
    |             |--I. healdiS88
    |             `--I. typus Gunnell 1933AS93
    |--Hibbardellinae [Hibbardellidae]H62
    |    |--Diplododella Bassler 1925H62
    |    |    `--*D. bilateralis Ulrich & Bassler 1926H62
    |    |--Elsonella Youngquist 1945H62
    |    |    `--*E. prima Youngquist 1945H62
    |    |--Roundya Hass 1953H62
    |    |    `--*R. barnettana Hass 1953H62
    |    |--Tetraprioniodus Lindström 1954 [incl. Rosagnathus Rhodes 1955]H62
    |    |    `--*T. robustus Lindström 1954H62
    |    `--Hibbardella Bassler 1925S88
    |         |--*H. angulata (Hinde 1879) [=Prioniodus angulatus]H62
    |         `--H. triassicaH62
    `--Oulodus Branson & Mehl 1933S88
         |--*O. serratus (Stauffer 1930) [=Cordylodus serratus]SS05
         |--O. australis Bischoff 1986M02
         |--O. eorectangularisMS12
         |--O. excavatusJT12
         |--O. mediocris Branson & Mehl 1933H62
         |--O. nathaniS88
         |--O. panuarensis Bischoff 1986M02
         |--O. petilusMS12
         |--O. rectangularisMS12
         |--O. robustusS88
         |--O. siluricusJT12
         |--O. ulrichiS88
         `--O. velicuspusSS05
Prioniodinidae incertae sedis:
  Delotaxis Klapper & Philip 1971D02
    `--*D. elegans (Walliser 1964)D02
  Dyminodina Dzik 2002D02
    |--*D. planidentata Dzik 2002D02
    |--D. anterodenticulata Dzik 2002D02
    `--D. kovalensis Dzik 2002D02
  Pluckidina Dzik 2002D02
    |--*P. lagoviensis Dzik 2002D02
    |--P. kielcensis Dzik 2002D02
    |--P. lipperti (Bischoff 1956)D02
    |--P. nonaginta (Klapper et al. 1996)D02
    |--P. robustipegmata Dzik 2002D02
    |--P. slupiensis Dzik 2002D02
    `--P. tortoides (Sparling 1981) [=Prioniodina tortoides]D02
  Loxodus Furnish 1938H62
    `--*L. bransoni Furnish 1938H62
  Pachysomia Smith 1907H62
    `--*P. wanlockensis Smith 1907H62
  Subprioniodus Smith 1907H62
    `--*S. paucidentatus Smith 1907H62
  LigonodininaeD02
  Falodus Lindström 1954H62
    `--*F. prodentatus (Graves & Ellison 1941) [=Oistodus prodentatus]H62
  Gyrognathus Stauffer 1935H62
    `--*G. prima Stauffer 1935H62
  Polygnathellus Bassler 1925H62
    |--*P. typicalis Ulrich & Bassler 1926H62
    `--P. curvatus Ulrich & Bassler 1926KU04
  Metalonchodina Brandon & Mehl 1941H62 [incl. Duboisella Rhodes 1952R62, Neoprioniodus Rhodes & Müller 1956R62]
    |--*M. bidentata (Gunnell 1931)H62 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Neoprioniodus’ alatusH62
    `--‘Neoprioniodus’ ligoH62
  Pseudolonchodina Zhou et al. 1981AS93
  Aspelundia Savage 1985AS93
    |--A. borenorensisMS12
    `--A. fluegeli (Walliser 1964)WBN02

Kladognathus Rexroad 1958S88 [=Cladognathus Rexroad 1957 non Burmeister 1847H62; incl. Lambdagnathus Rexroad 1958S88, MagnilaterellaS88]

*Metalonchodina bidentata (Gunnell 1931)H62 [=Prioniodus bidentatusH62; incl. Lonchodina clarki (Gunnell 1931)R62, P. conjunctus Gunnell 1931H62, *Neoprioniodus conjunctusR62, Ligonodina typa (Gunnell 1933)R62, *Duboisella typica Rhodes 1952R62]

Trichonodella Branson & Mehl 1948 [=Trichognathus Branson & Mehl 1933 nec Berthold 1827 nec Gemminger & Harold 1868]H62

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[H62] Hass, W. H. 1962. Conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W3–W69. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[JT12] Jeppsson, L., J. A. Talent, R. Mawson, A. Andrew, C. Corradini, A. J. Simpson, J. Wigforss-Lange & H. P. Schönlaub. 2012. Late Ludfordian correlations and the Lau Event. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 653–675. Springer.

[KU04] Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian–Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78: 371–387.

[M02] Männik, P. 2002. Conodonts in the Silurian of Severnaya Zemlya and Sedov archipelagos (Russia), with special reference to the genus Ozarkodina Branson & Mehl, 1933. Geodiversitas 24 (1): 77–97.

[MS12] Molloy, P. D., & A. J. Simpson. 2012. An analysis of the Ireviken Event in the Boree Creek Formation, New South Wales, Australia. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 615–630. Springer.

[R62] Rhodes, F. H. T. 1962. Recognition, interpretation, and taxonomic position of conodont assemblages. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W70–W83. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[RR79] Ross, C. A., & J. R. P. Ross. 1979. Permian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A291–A350. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SS05] Sansom, I. J., & M. P. Smith. 2005. Late Ordovician vertebrates from the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming, USA. Palaeontology 48 (1): 31–48.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[TC71] Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish—Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin 38: 1–109.

[WBN02] Won, M.-Z., R. B. Blodgett & V. Nestor. 2002. Llandoverian (Early Silurian) radiolarians from the Road River Formation of east-central Alaska and the new family Haplotaeniatumidae. Journal of Paleontology 76 (6): 941–964.

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