Prionyx

Prionyx parkeri, copyright Judy Gallagher.

Belongs within: Sphecidae.

Prionyx is a cosmopolitan genus of wasps, most diverse in the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia, that prey on grasshoppers of the family Acrididae (Bohart & Menke 1976).

Characters (from Bohart & Menke 1976): Flagellomere I sometimes equal to II or II longer than I in some males; male flagellomeres plain or with placoids on articles III–V or VI (rarely on II–VII or only III–IV), placoids usually flat and nonspiculate; female clypeus usually bulging, free margin arcuate to straight for most of its breadth, often with a median V- or U-shaped notch; male clypeus arcuate to trapezoidal in outline, sometimes weakly emarginate; female labrum entire or broadly emarginate, or with a large U-shaped median notch in which case surface usually with a median carina which projects as a tooth into notch; male labrum entire or variably emarginate; female mandible usually with two teeth near middle of inner margin (one inner tooth rarely weak or absent), male mandible with a single subapical inner tooth; mouthparts short to long, labial palpi sometimes very short and occasionally only with one to three segments; episternal sulcus extending ventrad to or nearly to anteroventral margin of pleuron, rarely ending at level of scrobe; lower metapleural area often defined in females and some males by a dorsal ridge or crest; metapleuron often depressed and channel-like for reception of hindfemur; usually three submarginal cells present (exceptionally two); first and second recurrent veins typically received by submarginal cells II and III respectively, but other combinations occur; tibiae and tarsi moderately to densely spinose; female foreleg with a well developed rake of long, usually blade-like setae: apicoventral blade-like setae of last tarsomere of mid and hind leg usually separated by not more than a setal breadth; claw with two to five basal teeth on inner margin; petiole varying from short, straight with length much less than combined length of hindtarsomeres II–IV, to elongate, arcuate, and slightly more than length of hindtarsomeres II–IV; last sternum of female varying from broadly, transversely arched to strongly keel-like; male sterna occasionally with long, erect setae and IV–V usually covered with dull, scale-like, or velvety micropubescence which contrasts with adjacent sterna (III–VI rarely densely fimbriate; sternum VIII triangular and often keel-like, or spatulate, apex rounded or narrowly truncate and sometimes emarginate; penis valve head usually with teeth along ventral margin; apical lobe of volsella long and slender.

<==Prionyx Van der Linden 1827 C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |–*P. kirbii (Van der Linden 1827) C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |–P. k. kirbii BM76
    |    `–P. k. marginatus (Smith 1856) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. afghaniensis (Beaumont 1970) [=Sphex afghaniensis] BM76
    |–P. atratus (Lepeletier 1845) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. bifoveolatus (Taschenberg 1869) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. canadensis (Provancher 1887) [=Priononyx canadensis; incl. Sphex excisus Kohl 1890] BM76
    |–P. chobauti (Roth 1925) [=Sphex chobauti] BM76
    |–P. crudelis (Smith 1856) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. damascenus (Beaumont 1968) [=Sphex damascenus] BM76
    |–P. elegantulus (Turner 1912) [=Sphex elegantulus] BM76
    |–P. erythrogaster (Rohwer 1913) [=Callosphex erythrogaster] BM76
    |–P. fervens (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. foxi Bohart & Menke 1963 [incl. Sphex ferrugineus Fox 1892 non Lepeletier 1845] BM76
    |–P. fragilis (Nurse 1903) [=Sphex fragilis] BM76
    |–P. funebris (Berland 1927) [=Sphex funebris] BM76
    |–P. globosus (Smith 1856) [=Sphex globosa] C85
    |–P. gobiensis (Tsuneki 1971) [=Sphex gobiensis] BM76
    |–P. guichardi (Beaumont 1967) [=Sphex guichardi] BM76
    |–P. haberhaueri (Radoszkowski 1872) [=Sphex haberhaueri] BM76
    |–P. herrerai (Brèthes 1926) [=Sphex herrerai; incl. S. vilarrubiai Giner Marí 1944] BM76
    |–P. inda (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. insignis (Kohl 1885) [=Sphex insignis] BM76
    |–P. judaeus (Beaumont 1968) [=Sphex judaeus] BM76
    |–P. kurdistanicus (Balthasar 1953) [=Sphex kurdistanicus] BM76
    |–P. ‘leuconotus’ (Morawitz 1890) [=Sphex leuconotus non Brullé 1833] BM76
    |–P. lividocinctus (Costa 1858) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |–P. l. lividocinctus BM76
    |    |–P. l. apakensis (Tsuneki 1971) [=Sphex apakensis] BM76
    |    `–P. l. oasis (Tsuneki 1971) [=Sphex oasis] BM76
    |–P. macula (Fabricius 1804) [=Pepsis macula; incl. Sphex eatoni Saunders 1910] BM76
    |    |–P. m. macula BM76
    |    `–P. m. lugens (Kohl 1889) [=Sphex lugens] BM76
    |–P. melanotus (Morawitz 1890) [=Sphex melanotus] BM76
    |–P. neoxenus (Kohl 1890) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. nigropectinatus (Taschenberg 1869) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. niveatus (Dufour 1853) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |–P. n. niveatus BM76
    |    `–P. n. ettingol (Tsuneki 1971) [=Sphex ettingol] BM76
    |–P. notonitidus (Willink 1951) [=Chlorion notonitidum] BM76
    |–P. nudatus (Kohl 1885) [=Sphex nudatus] BM76
    |–P. parkeri Bohart & Menke 1963 BM76
    |–P. perezi (Berland 1927) [=Sphex perezi] BM76
    |–P. persicus (Mocsáry 1883) [=Sphex persicus; incl. S. hispidus Morawitz 1890] BM76
    |–P. pseudostriatus (Giner Marí 1944) [=Sphex pseudostriatus; incl. S. vaqueroi Giner Marí 1944] BM76
    |–P. pumilio (Taschenberg 1869) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. radoszkowskyi (Kohl 1888) [=Sphex radoszkowskyi] BM76
    |–P. reymondi (Roth 1954) [=Sphex reymondi] BM76
    |–P. saevus (Smith 1856) [=Harpactopus saevus] C85
    |    |–P. s. saevus BM76
    |    `–P. s. harpax (Kohl 1898) [=Sphex harpax] BM76
    |–P. senegalensis (Arnold 1951) [=Sphex senegalensis] BM76
    |–P. senilis (Morice 1911) [=Sphex senilis; incl. S. biskrensis Roth 1925] BM76
    |–P. sennae (Mantero 1901) [=Sphex sennae] BM76
    |–P. simillimus (Fernald 1907) [=Chlorion simillimum; incl. S. tucumanensis Strand 1910] BM76
    |–P. sirdariensis (Radoszkowski 1877) [=Sphex sirdariensis] BM76
    |–P. songaricus (Eversmann 1849) [=Sphex songaricus; incl. S. tenuicornis Morawitz 1890] BM76
    |–P. spinolae (Smith 1856) [=Sphex spinolae; incl. S. chilensis Spinola 1851 non Lepeletier 1845] BM76
    |–P. stschurowskii (Radoszkowski 1877) [=Sphex stschurowskii] BM76
    |    |–P. s. stschurowskii BM76
    |    `–P. s. hyalipennis (Kohl 1895) [=Sphex hyalipennis] BM76
    |–P. subfuscatus (Dahlbom 1845) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |–P. s. subfuscatus BM76
    |    |–P. s. albovillosulus (Giordani Soika 1942) [=Sphex albovillosulus] BM76
    |    |–P. s. namkumiensis (Laidlaw 1929) [=Sphex namkumiensis] BM76
    |    |–P. s. rhodesianus (Arnold 1936) [=Chlorion rhodesianum] BM76
    |    `–P. s. rukwaensis (Arnold 1959) [=Sphex rukwaensis] BM76
    |–P. sundewalli (Dahlbom 1845) [=Enodia sundewalli] BM76
    |–P. thomae (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |–P. trichargyrus (Spinola 1838) [=Sphex trichargyrus; incl. S. leucosoma Kohl 1890] BM76
    |–P. viduatus (Christ 1791) (see below for synonymy) BM76
    |    |–P. v. viduatus BM76
    |    |–P. v. argentatus (Mocsáry 1883) [=Enodia argentata; incl. Sphex mocsaryi Kohl 1885] BM76
    |    `–P. v. pollens (Kohl 1885) [=Sphex pollens] BM76
    |–P. vittatus (Kohl 1884) [=Enodia vittata] BM76
    `–P. zarudnyi (Gussakovskij 1933) [=Sphex zarudnyi] BM76

Nomen nudum: Pseudosphex noverca Kaye 1910 BM76

Prionyx Van der Linden 1827 C85 [incl. Calosphex Kohl 1890 BM76, Enodia Dahlbom 1843 non Hübner 1819 BM76, Gastrosphaeria Costa 1858 BM76, Harpactopus Smith 1856 BM76, Neosphex Reed 1894 BM76, Parasphex Smith 1856 BM76, Priononyx Dahlbom 1843 BM76, Pseudosphex Taschenberg 1869 non Hübner 1818 BM76]

Prionyx atratus (Lepeletier 1845) [=Sphex atratus; incl. Priononyx brunnipes Cresson 1872, S. labrosus Harris 1835 (n. n.)] BM76

Prionyx bifoveolatus (Taschenberg 1869) [=Priononyx bifoveolatus; incl. Sphex caridei Lieberman 1931, S. striatulus Brèthes 1909, S. subexcisus Brèthes 1909, S. wagneri Berland 1927] BM76

Prionyx crudelis (Smith 1856) [=*Harpactopus crudelis; incl. Sphex aegyptius Lepeletier 1845 non Linnaeus 1758, S. grandis Radoszkowski 1876, S. rufipennis Fabricius 1793 non De Geer 1778, S. turcomanicus Radoszkowski 1893] BM76

Prionyx fervens (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sphex fervens; incl. S. doumerci Lepeletier 1845, Pepsis johannis Fabricius 1804, S. laerma Cameron 1897, Priononyx striatus Smith 1856] BM76

Prionyx inda (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sphex inda; incl. S. englebergi Brauns 1889, S. indostana Linnaeus 1764, Harpactopus tyrannus Smith 1856, S. vagus Radoszkowski 1881 nec Linnaeus 1758 nec Christ 1791] BM76

*Prionyx kirbii (Van der Linden 1827) C85 [=Ammophila kirbii C85, P. kirbyi BM76; incl. Sphex albisectus Lepeletier & Serville 1828 BM76, *Enodia albisecta BM76, *Parasphex albisectus BM76]

Prionyx kirbii marginatus (Smith 1856) [=Parasphex marginatus; incl. Sphex alluaudi Berland 1927, S. chudeaui Berland 1927, S. congoensis Berland 1927, S. curvilineatus Cameron 1912, S. sjoestedti Cameron 1908] BM76

Prionyx lividocinctus (Costa 1858) [=Enodia lividocincta; incl. E. graeca Mocsáry 1883, Priononyx isselii Gribodo 1880, E. obliquestriata Mocsáry 1883] BM76

Prionyx neoxenus (Kohl 1890) [=Sphex neoxenus; incl. S. gayi Berland 1927, S. melaenus Spinola 1851, S. melanogaster Brèthes 1910, S. nigricapillus Berland 1927, S. ommissus Kohl 1890] BM76

Prionyx nigropectinatus (Taschenberg 1869) [=Sphex nigropectinatus; incl. S. dives Lepeletier 1845, Podium maracandicum Radoszkowski 1877, S. nivosus Smith 1856] BM76

Prionyx niveatus (Dufour 1853) [=Sphex niveatus, *Calosphex niveatus; incl. Enodia albopectinata Taschenberg 1869, Sphex suavis Morawitz 1893] BM76

Prionyx pumilio (Taschenberg 1869) [=*Pseudosphex pumilio; incl. *Neosphex albospiniferus Reed 1894, Sphex dolichoderus Kohl 1890] BM76

Prionyx subfuscatus (Dahlbom 1845) [=Sphex subfuscatus; incl. *Gastrosphaeria anthracina Costa 1858, Enodia chrysoptera Ruthe & Stein 1857, S. desertorum Eversmann 1849, S. nigritus Lucas 1848 non Fabricius 1781, S. soror Dahlbom 1845, S. subfuscatus Eversmann 1849 non Dahlbom 1845] BM76

Prionyx thomae (Fabricius 1775) [=Sphex thomae, Pepsis thomae, *Priononyx thomae; incl. Sphex altibia Strand 1911, Priononyx antillarum Saussure 1867, Pepsis crucis Fabricius 1804, Sphex edwardsi Cameron 1903, Priononyx mexicanus Saussure 1867, S. platensis Brèthes 1908, Enodia pubidorsum Costa 1862] BM76

Prionyx viduatus (Christ 1791) [=Sphex viduatus; incl. Enodia canescens Dahlbom 1843, S. granti Kirby 1900, S. micans Eversmann 1849, S. platynotus Matsumura 1912, S. pubescens Fabricius 1793, Priononyx zanoni Gribodo 1925] BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

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