Southern royal albatross Diomedea epomophora, copyright J. J. Harrison.

Belongs within: Aequornithia.
Contains: Oceanitidae, Oceanodroma, Procellariidae.

The Procellariiformes contain the tube-nosed seabirds: albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters. Members of the Procellariiformes have more or less tubular nostrils running along the basal part of the beak, and the front three toes connected by webs (Mayr et al. 2002). The albatrosses of the Diomedeidae include the largest living seabirds with the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans having the largest wingspan of any living bird.

The genus Diomedea includes the larger albatrosses, marine gliders found in colder waters of the Southern Hemisphere. Fossil species from the northern Atlantic have also been assigned to this genus (Mlíkovský 2002) though they may be better placed in one of the other albatross genera. Diomedea species are distinguished from the sooty albatrosses of the genus Phoebetria by their shorter, rounded tails. Recent authors have increased the number of species recognised in Diomedea. The northern royal albatross D. sanfordi has been separated from the southern royal albatross D. epomophora, while populations previously included in the wandering albatross D. exulans have been distinguished as the Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis, Tristan albatross D. dabbenena and Antipodean albatross D. antipodensis.

Early fossil representatives of the Procellariiformes include the Diomedeoididae, an Oligocene family of small birds with distinctive flattened pedal phalanges (Mayr et al. 2002).

<==Procellariiformes [Oceanitoidea, Procellarae, Procellarioidea, Thalassidromidae, Tubinares]
    |  i. s.: Primodroma Harrison & Walker 1977M02
    |           `--*P. bournei Harrison & Walker 1977M02
    |         Plotornis Milne-Edwards 1874M02
    |           |--*P. delfortrii Milne-Edwards 1874M02
    |           `--P. arvernensis (Milne-Edwards in Shufeldt 1896) [=Puffinus arvernensis]M02
    |         Tytthostonyx [Tytthostonychidae]M09
    |           `--T. glauconiticus Olson & Parris 1987M09
    |--Marinavis Harrison & Walker 1977M05, M02 [Marinavidae]
    |    `--*M. longirostris Harrison & Walker 1977M02
    |    |--Rupelornis van Beneden 1871MPR02
    |    |    `--*R. definitus van Beneden 1871MPR02 [incl. Vanellus selysii van Beneden 1871M09]
    |    `--Diomedeoides Fischer 1985 [incl. Frigidafons Cheneval 1995]MPR02
    |         |--D. lipsiensis (Fischer 1983)MPR02 [=Gaviota lipsiensisMPR02; incl. *D. minimus Fischer 1985M02, MPR02]
    |         |--D. babaheydariensis (Peters & Hamedani 2000) [=Frigidafons babaheydariensis]MPR02
    |         `--D. brodkorbi (Cheneval 1995) [=*Frigidafons brodkorbi]MPR02
       |  `--+--OceanodromaBKB15
       |     `--ProcellariidaeBKB15
            |  i. s.: Manu Marples 1946CC10
            |           `--*M. antiquus Marples 1946CC10
            |         Murunkus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987MPR02
            |           `--*M. subitus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987MPR02
            |--+--Phoebetria Reichenbach 1853CM09, CC10 [Phoebetriidae]
            |  |    |--P. palpebrata (Forster 1785) (see below for synonymy)CC10
            |  |    `--P. fusca (Hilsenberg 1822) (see below for synonymy)CC10
            |  `--Thalassarche Reichenbach 1853CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       |--+--T. carteri (Rothschild 1903)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       |  `--T. chlororhynchos (Gmelin 1789)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       `--+--+--T. chrysostoma (Forster 1785)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          |  `--+--*T. melanophris (Temminck 1828)CC10, CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          |     `--T. impavida Mathews 1912CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          `--+--T. bulleri (Rothschild 1893)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea bulleriCC10]
            |             |    |--T. b. bulleriCC10
            |             |    `--T. b. platei (Reichenow 1898) [=Diomedea platei, D. bulleri platei]CC10
            |             `--+--+--T. cauta (Gould 1841)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                |  `--T. steadi Falla 1933CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                `--+--T. eremita Murphy 1930CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                   `--T. salvini (Rothschild 1893)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            `--+--Phoebastria Reichenbach 1853CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--+--P. albatrus (Pallas 1769)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |  `--P. irrorataCM09 [=Diomedea irrorataCC10, *Galapagornis irrorataCC10, *Julietata irrorataCC10]
               |    `--+--P. immutabilis (Rothschild 1893)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |       `--+--P. nigripes (Audubon 1839)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |          `--P. nihonusBKB15
               `--Diomedea Linnaeus 1758CM09, CC10 [incl. Rhothonia Murphy 1917CC10]
                    |  i. s.: D. adusta Tschudi 1856 (n. d.)CC10
                    |         D. anglica Lydekker 1891M02
                    |         D. demersa Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |         D. rumana Grigorescu & Kessler 1988M02
                    |         D. spadicea Gmelin 1789 (n. d.)CC10
                    |--+--D. epomophora (Lesson 1825)CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                    |  `--D. sanfordi (Murphy 1917)CM09, CC10 [=D. (*Rhothonia) sanfordiCC10, D. epomophora sanfordiCC10]
                    `--+--D. dabbenena Mathews 1929CM09, CC10 [=D. exulans dabbenenaCC10]
                       `--+--D. antipodensis Robertson & Warham 1992CM09, CC10
                          |    |--D. a. antipodensis [=D. exulans antipodensis]CC10
                          |    `--D. a. gibsoni Robertson & Warham 1992 [=D. exulans gibsoni]CC10
                          `--+--*D. exulans Linnaeus 1758CC10, CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                             |    |--D. e. exulansCC10
                             |    `--D. e. grisea Pelzeln 1873 (n. d.)CC10
                             `--D. amsterdamensisCM09

Diomedea epomophora (Lesson 1825)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedaea (l. c.) epomophoraCC10, Rhothonia epomophoraCC10; incl. Diomedea epomophora longirostris Mathews 1934CC10, Diomedea epomophora mccormicki Mathews 1912CC10, Diomedea regia Buller 1891CC10]

*Diomedea exulans Linnaeus 1758CC10, CM09, CC10 [incl. D. chionoptera Salvin 1896CC10, D. exulans chionopteraCC10, D. exulans georgia Mathews 1933CC10, D. exulans rohui Mathews 1915CC10, D. chionoptera rohuiCC10, D. exulans rothschildi Mathews 1912CC10, D. exulans westralis Mathews 1918CC10]

Phoebastria Reichenbach 1853CM09, CC10 [incl. Galapagornis Boetticher 1949CC10, Julietata Mathews in Mathews & Hallstrom 1943CC10, Laysanornis Boetticher 1949CC10, Penthirenia Boetticher 1949CC10]

Phoebastria albatrus (Pallas 1769)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea albatrusCM09; incl. D. brachyura Nelson 1883S05, *Phoebastria brachyuraCC10]

Phoebastria immutabilis (Rothschild 1893)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea immutabilisCC10, *Laysanornis immutabilisCC10, Thalassarche immutabilisCC10]

Phoebastria nigripes (Audubon 1839)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea nigripesCC10, *Penthirenia nigripesCC10, Thalassarche nigripesCC10; incl. Diomedea nigripes reischekia Mathews 1930CC10]

Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg 1822) [=Diomedea fusca, D. palpebrata fusca; incl. P. fusca campbelli Mathews 1912]CC10

Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster 1785) [=Diomedea palpebrata, D. antarctica Gray 1844, D. fuliginosa Gmelin 1789, *Phoebetria fuliginosa; incl. P. palpebrata antarctica Mathews 1912 non D. antarctica Gray 1844, P. palpebrata auduboni Nichols & Murphy 1914, D. fuliginosa var. cornicoides Hutton 1867, P. cornicoides, P. palpebrata huttoni Mathews 1912, P. palpebrata murphyi Mathews & Iredale 1921]CC10

Thalassarche Reichenbach 1853CM09, CC10 [incl. Diomedella Mathews 1912CC10, Nealbatrus Mathews 1912CC10, Thalassogeron Ridgway in Baird, Brewer & Ridgway 1884CC10]

Thalassarche carteri (Rothschild 1903)CM09, CC10 [=Thalassogeron carteriCC10, Diomedea chlororhynchos carteriCC10, Nealbatrus chlororhynchus carteriCC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchus carteriCC10; incl. Diomedea bassi Mathews 1912CC10, D. chlororhynchos bassiCC10, Nealbatrus chlororhynchus bassiCC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchus bassiCC10, Thalassogeron chlororhynchos bassiCC10]

Thalassarche cauta (Gould 1841)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea cautaCC10, *Diomedella cautaCC10, Thalassogeron cautusCC10; incl. Thalassogeron layardi Salvin 1896CC10, Thalassogeron cautus layardiCC10, Diomedella cauta rohui Mathews 1916CC10, Diomedella cauta wallacea Mathews 1918CC10]

Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin 1789)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea chlororhynchosCC10, D. (Thalassarche) chlororhynchaCC10, D. chlororhynchusCC10, *Nealbatrus chlororhynchusCC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchusCC10, Thalassogeron chlororhynchusCC10; incl. Thalassogeron eximius Verrill 1895CC10, Diomedea melanoptera Miranda-Ribeiro 1928CC10, D. presaga Bonaparte 1857CC10]

Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster 1785)CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea chrysostomaCC10, Thalassogeron culminatus chrysostomaCC10; incl. Thalassogeron chrysostoma alexanderi Mathews 1916CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma alexanderiCC10, Diomedea culminata Gould 1843CC10, D. (Thalassarche) culminataCC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma culminatusCC10, *Thalasssogeron chrysostoma culminataCC10, *Thalassogeron culminatusCC10, Thalassogeron desolationis Salvadori 1911CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma desolationisCC10, Thalassogeron chrysostoma desolationisCC10, Thalassogeron chrysostoma harterti Mathews 1912CC10, Diomedea culminata mathewsi Rothschild 1912CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma mathewsiCC10]

Thalassarche eremita Murphy 1930CM09, CC10 [=Thalassarche cauta eremitaCC10, Diomedea cauta eremitaCC10, T. (Diomedella) cauta eremitaCC10]

Thalassarche impavida Mathews 1912CM09, CC10 [=T. melanophris impavidaCC10, Diomedea melanophris impavidaCC10, D. melanophrys impavidaCC10]

*Thalassarche melanophris (Temminck 1828)CC10, CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea melanophrisCC10, D. melanophrysCC10, Thalassarche melanophrysCC10; incl. T. melanophris belcheri Mathews 1912CC10, Diomedea gilliana Coues 1866CC10, T. melanophris richmondi Mathews 1912CC10]

Thalassarche salvini (Rothschild 1893)CM09, CC10 [=Thalassogeron salviniCC10, Diomedea cauta salviniCC10, Diomedella cauta salviniCC10, Thalassogeron cautus salviniCC10; incl. Diomedella cauta atlantica Mathews 1933CC10, Diomedea cauta peruvia Mathews 1933CC10]

Thalassarche steadi Falla 1933CM09, CC10 [=T. cauta steadiCC10, Diomedea cauta steadiCC10, Diomedella cauta steadiCC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CM09] Chambers, G. K., C. Moeke, R. Steel & J. W. H. Trueman. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the 24 named albatross taxa based on full mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences. Notornis 56: 82–94.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MPR02] Mayr, G., D. S. Peters & S. Rietschel. 2002. Petrel-like birds with a peculiar foot morphology from the Oligocene of Germany and Belgium (Aves: Procellariiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22 (3): 667–676.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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