Proctotrupes gravidator, copyright Tom Murray.

Belongs within: Proctotrupoidea.

The Proctotrupidae are a group of small wasps that are mostly endoparasites of Coleoptera larvae, rarely of Diptera. The species Exallonyx trifoveatus is found worldwide as a parasite of Staphylinidae in compost heaps (Naumann 1991). Most proctotrupids have the wing venation reduced, with the radial cell reduced or almost obliterated, but a well-developed venation and radial cell is retained in the fore wing of the Austroserphini. Austroserphins also have the apex of the antennal scape produced into an acute spine (Riek 1954). Females of the genus Paracodrus are wingless (Riek 1954).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Mostly small (3–15 mm); mesosoma without transscutal articulation; metasoma with large syntergum; trochantellus sometimes present on fore leg; T2 and S2 (petiole) and synsternum fused; metasoma in females usually posteriorly down-curved and telescopic; cerci digitiform or absent.

Proctotrupidae [Proctotrupinae, Serphidae]
|--Austroserphini [Austroserphidae]RC74
| |--Austroserphus Dodd 1933MH11, R54
| | `--*A. albofasciatus Dodd 1933R54
| `--Acanthoserphus Dodd 1915RC74, R54
| `--*A. albicoxa Dodd 1915R54
`--+--Disogmus Foerster 1856MH11, R54
| |--*D. areolator (Haliday 1839) [=Proctotrupes areolator]R54
| `--D. nigerrimus Dodd 1915R54
| `--+--Exallonyx trifoveatusMH11, N91
| `--Phaenoserphus Kieffer in André 1908BS23, R54
| |--*P. curtipennis (Haliday 1839) [=Proctotrupes curtipennis]R54
| |--P. australiae (Kieffer 1907) [=Proctotrypes australiae]R54
| |--P. calcarA71
| `--P. viatorA71
`--Proctotrupes Latreille 1796MH11, R54
|--*P. brevipennis Latreille 1802R54
|--P. collaris Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
|--P. doddi Riek 1954R54
|--P. gravidatorMS01
|--P. janthinae Dodd 1915 [=Proctotrypes janthinae]R54
|--P. nigerG20
|--P. nitens Dodd 1920R54
|--P. pallipesR26
|--P. splendidus Riek 1954R54
|--P. syagriiR70
`--P. turneri Dodd 1920R54

Proctotrupidae incertae sedis:
Labeo pusillus Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
|--P. grandisMS01
`--P. spinosa Szépligeti in Moscáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
|--I. grandisMS01
`--I. rossicus Szépligeti in Mocsáry & Szépligeti 1901MS01
Cryptoserphus Kieffer in André 1907R54
|--*C. longicalcar Kieffer in André 1908R54
|--C. nigriscutum Dodd 1915R54
|--C. nitidus Dodd 1915R54
`--C. sulcatus Riek 1954R54
Rasnitsynia huadongensis (Zhang 1985) [=Oligoneuroides huadongensis]RJ93
Afroserphus masneriBS23
|--S. domesticaL49
`--S. ruficornis Lucas 1849E12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BS23] Blaimer, B. B., B. F. Santos, A. Cruaud, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula, I. Mikó, J.-Y. Rasplus, D. R. Smith, E. J. Talamas, S. G. Brady & M. L. Buffington. 2023. Key innovations and the diversification of Hymenoptera. Nature Communications 14: 1212.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R54] Riek, E. F. 1954. Australian wasps of the family Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 106–117.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[RC74] Riek, E. F., & J. C. Cardale. 1974. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 107–111. Melbourne University Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.


    1. Thank you again, Ruud, and image replaced again. This is, of course, the risk one takes when relying on the accuracy of online identifications!

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