Protocrinitida

Specimen of Gomphocystites bownockeri, from the Field Museum; scale bar equals 1 cm.

Belongs within: Diploporita.

The Glyptosphaeritida are a group of Lower Ordovician to Middle Silurian cystoids bearing radial ambulacra with alternating lateral branches.

Characters (from Kesling 1967): Diplopore-bearing cystoids with globular, ovate, pear-shaped, or saclike thecae. Ambulacra radial, extending over theca, with alternating lateral branches ( single or in groups) leading to brachiole facets; in many genera, ambulacra bordered by alternating “adambulacrals” on which facets are located. Diplopores invariably present on ambulacra-bearing plates, in some forms also in the interambulacral areas. Most with column, a few molting column as adults.

<==Protocrinitida [Glyptosphaeritida, Seriolata]SG93
    |--Dactylocystidae [Estonocystidae]K67
    |    |--Revalocystis Jaekel 1918K67
    |    |    `--*R. mickwitzi (Jaekel 1899) [=Dactylocystis mickwitzi]K67
    |    |--Estonocystis Jaekel 1918 [=Esthonocystis Chauvel 1941]K67
    |    |    `--*E. antropoffi Jaekel 1918 [=*Esthonocystis antropoffi]K67
    |    `--Dactylocystis Jaekel 1899 [=Proteroblastus Jaekel 1895 (n. n.)]K67
    |         `--*D. schmidti Jaekel 1899K67 [=*Proteroblastus schmidtiJ18]
    `--+--Glyptosphaerites Müller 1854 (see below for synonymy)K67
       |    |--*G. leuchtenbergi (Volborth 1846) [=Sphaeronites leuchtenbergi, *Glyptosphaera leuchtenbergi]K67
       |    |    |--G. l. leuchtenbergiK67
       |    |    `--G. l. hispanicusK67
       |    |--G. ferrigenusK67
       |    |--G. mariaeK67
       |    `--G. suecicusK67
       `--+--Protocrinitidae [Protocrinidae]K67
          |    |--Eumorphocystis Branson & Peck 1940 [Eumorphocystidae]K67
          |    |    `--E. multiporata Branson & Peck 1940K67
          |    |--Regnellicystis Bassler 1950 [Regnellicystidae]K67
          |    |    `--*R. typicalis Bassler 1950K67
          |    |--Fungocystites Barrande 1887 [=Fungocystis Haeckel 1896]K67
          |    |    |--*F. rarissimus Barrande 1887 [=*Fungocystis rarissima]K67
          |    |    `--F. solitariusK67
          |    `--Protocrinites Eichwald 1840 [=Protocrinus Bronn 1848]K67
          |         |--*P. oviformis Eichwald 1840 [=*Protocrinus oviformis]K67
          |         |--P. fragrum (Eichwald 1840)SG93 [=Protocrinus fragumH04]
          |         |--P. rugatusA99
          |         `--P. sparsiporusK67
          `--Gomphocystitidae [Gomphocystidae]K67
               |--Pyrocystites Barrande 1887 [=Pirocystis Bather 1889, Pyrocistis Carpenter 1891]K67
               |    |--*P. pirum Barrande 1887 [=*Pirocystis pirum, *Pyrocistis pirum]K67
               |    |--P. incertusK67
               |    |--P. orientalisK67
               |    `--P. patulusK67
               `--Gomphocystites Hall 1865 [=Gomphocystis Angelin 1878]K67
                    |--*G. glans Hall 1864 [=*Gomphocystis glans]K67
                    |--G. bownockeri Foerste 1920SG93
                    |--G. californicus Stauffer 1930K67
                    |--G. clavusK67
                    |--G. gotlandicusK67
                    |--G. indianensisK67
                    `--G. tenaxK67

Glyptosphaerites Müller 1854 [=Glyptosphaera Angelin 1878, Glyptosphora (l. c.); Glyptosphaeridae, Glyptosphaeritidae]K67

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A99] Ausich, W. I. 1999. Origin of crinoids. In: Candia Carnevali, M. D., & F. Bonasoro (eds) Echinoderm Research 1998 pp. 237–242. A. A. Balkema: Rotterdam.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[J18] Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1–128.

[K67] Kesling, R. V. 1967. Cystoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. HomalozoaCrinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S85–S267. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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