Hind wing of Protoperla westwoodi, from Béthoux et al. (2005).

Belongs within: Xenonomia.

The Protoperlina are a group of insects recorded from the late Carboniferous to the early Cretaceous. The monophyly of the group is uncertain; Storozhenko (2002) defined it on the basis of characters of the forewing, but the type species Protoperla westwoodi is represented by a hindwing only (Béthoux et al. 2005). At least some Protoperlina were probably detritivores.

Characters (from Storozhenko 2002): Fore wing CuA and its branches situated in posterior wing half; proximal branch of fore wing CuA forming series of marginal veinlets across posterior wing margin.

    |  i. s.: Tshekardomina Novokshonov & Aristov 2002 [Tshekardominidae]NA02
    |           `--*T. maculosa Novokshonov & Aristov 2002NA02
    |         Stenoneurites Handlirsch 1906S02, BN05 [StenoneuritidaeBN05]
    |           `--*S. maximi (Brongniart 1893) [=Stenoneura maximi]BN05
    |    |--Protoblattiniella minutissimaS02
    |    |--Palaeocixius Brongniart 1893S02, BN05 [incl. Fabrecia Meunier 1911BN05, Protocixius Brongniart 1885 (n. n.)BN05]
    |    |    `--*P. antiquus Brongniart 1893 (see below for synonymy)BN05
    |    `--Protoperla Brongniart 1893BN05
    |         |--*P. westwoodi Brongniart 1893BN05
    |         `--P. boltoni Lameere 1917BN05
       |  |--ProtembiaBN05 [Protembiaria, ProtembiidaeS02, Protembioptera]
       |  |    `--P. permiana Tillyard 1937BN05
       |  |--+--JabloniidaeS02
       |  |  `--CamptoneuritidaeS02
       |  `--+--ChelopteridaeS02
       |     |--AliculidaeS02
       |     `--Phenopterum Carpenter 1950BN05 [PhenopteridaeS02]
          |  `--SojanoraphidiaP02 [SojanoraphidiidaeS02]
          |       `--S. rossicaRJ93
             |  `--Tillyardembia Zalessky 1937R00 [TillyardembiidaeS02]
             |       `--T. antennaeplanaGE05
                `--+--OecanthoperlaRJ93 [OecanthoperlidaeS02]
                   |    `--O. sibirica Storozhenko 1988RJ93
                   `--+--PermembiaGE05 [PermembiidaeS02]
                      `--Sheimia [Sheimiidae, Sheimiodea]S02
                           `--S. sojanensis Martynova 1958R00

*Palaeocixius antiquus Brongniart 1893 [=Protocixius antiquus Bongniart 1885 (n. n.); incl. Palaeocixius fayoli Storozhenko 1998, Protoblattina giardi Meunier 1921, Fabrecia minuta Meunier 1911, Protoperla (Fabrecia) minuta, F. pygmae Meunier 1911, Palaeocixius pygmaeus, Protoperla (Fabrecia) pygmae]BN05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BN05] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie & G. Gand. 2005. New data on Paleozoic grylloblattid insects (Neoptera). Journal of Paleontology 79 (1): 125–138.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NA02] Novokshonov, V. G., & D. S. Aristov. 2002. New and little-known Permian insects (Insecta: Grylloblattida; Orthoptera) from the Chekarda Locality, central Ural Mountains. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (6): 73–77 (translated: Paleontological Journal 36 (6): 644–649).

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Storozhenko, S. Yu. 2002. Order Grylloblattida Walker, 1914 (=Notoptera Crampton, 1915, =Grylloblattodea Brues et Melander, 1932, +Protorthoptera Handlirsch, 1906, =Paraplecoptera Martynov, 1925, +Protoperlaria Tillyard, 1928). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 278–281. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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