Pselaphinae

 Fustigerodes majusculus, from Péringuey (1897).

Belongs within: Staphylinidae.
Contains: NatypleurinaSunorfa, Proterini, Arnylliini, Goniacerini, Plagiophorus, Bolbobythus, Tychus, Sagola, Faronus, Sonoma, Bythinoplectitae, Achillia, Bryaxina, Decarthron, Pselaptus, Scalenarthrus, Reichenbachia, Eupines, Rybaxis, Batraxis, Brachygluta, Bryaxis, Euplectitae, Pselaphitae.

The Pselaphinae are a cosmopolitan group of small, often grotesque-looking staphylinid beetles with a robust, relatively inflexible body (Newton et al. 2001). Members include the Clavigeritae, specialised beetles that are all associates of ants. Clavigeritae have antennae with one to six segments and greatly reduced maxillary palpi. An extensive hollow at the base of the abdomen surrounded by tufts of golden-yellow setae secretes a substance attractive to the beetle’s ant hosts.

The Goniaceritae are characterised by clearly separated hind coxae, short trochanters, three-segmented tarsi with the first segment smaller than the other two, asymmetrical or single tarsal claws, and generally complete parameres in the male genitalia (Nomura & Sakchoowong).

All about Buris ensipes
Published 10 June 2013
Sunorfa, from here.

The beetle pictured just above is not the intended subject of today’s post. It is a related beetle found in Thailand, but I’ve used its photo instead of one of today’s subject because, as far as I have been able to find, today’s subject has never been illustrated. It was described as Dalmodes ensipes from San Esteban in Venezuela by Raffray in 1891, before it became de rigeur to illustrate any new species described (Raffray did illustrate a number of other species described in the same paper, but not this one). It has since been recorded from Antigua and Trinidad in the West Indies by Park et al. (1976), who also indicated that it should be placed in the genus Buris instead of Dalmodes, but did not illustrate it. Park (1942) had previously placed it in the genus Bythinophysis, but did not illustrate it then either. I have not been able to find any illustration of another species of Buris. Nor have I been able to find illustrations for any other species of Dalmodes, nor of Bythinophysis. Sadly, this is not an uncommon state of affairs for insect species. I did briefly consider the idea of composing an illustration of a potential Buris ensipes on the basis of Raffray’s (1891) verbal description, but then I remembered that I was a rubbish drawer.

Buris ensipes is a member of the beetle group known as the Pselaphinae, of which another genus, Bryaxis, has previously been featured on this site. Like Bryaxis, Buris ensipes would probably be found in leaf litter, or possibly within rotting wood (specific collection details for Buris ensipes have not been recorded, but Park [1942] described pselaphines as found in both habitats). Also like Bryaxis, it is probably a micropredator, though again no record of its life habits has yet been made. Buris ensipes probably looks roughly similar to the photo of Sunorfa above, but Raffrays’ (1891) description indicates that it would have shorter antennae (the first segment is described as subquadrate, and the end as obtusely pointed). A curved, transverse fovea (depression) is described as present in the rear half of the pronotum, and the elytra bear a pair of subhumeral foveae (i.e. just near the ‘shoulders’). The fourth abdominal segment is toothed on either side. Also distinctive is the shape of the hind tibia, which is bisinuate with a median tooth. Overall, it is just over one and a half millimetres in length.

And that, as it stands, is just about all about Buris ensipes. Like all too many organisms, we have a morphological description, a few localities, and not a heck of a lot else. Buris ensipes just needs a little more love.

Update: A big thank you to Stephen Thorpe, who managed to do what I couldn’t and locate an illustration of a Buris species, B. brevicollis, in Sharp (1887). I’ve reproduced the figure below; it also tallies reasonably closely with Raffray’s description of B. ensipes. Potential differences between the species are that Sharp makes no mention in B. brevicollis of a toothed fourth abdominal segment like that of B. ensipes (though one should always be extremely cautious of assuming a given feature to be absent simply because a given author didn’t mention it), and that Raffray referred to the tibial spine of B. ensipes as ‘minute’ whereas that of B. brevicollis looks quite sizable.

Systematics of Pselaphinae

Characters (from Newton et al. 2001): Body robust, relatively inflexible, usually reddish-brown, with elytra exposing some abdominal segments; deep conical foveae present on vertex and/or other parts of the body; antennae inserted anterior to a line drawn between anterior margins of eyes; maxillary palps with 1-4 palpomeres plus a lightly sclerotized or unsclerotized apical pseudosegment, therefore often appearing to have five palpomeres; tarsal formula 3-3-3, rarely apparently 2-2-2; abdominal sterna III and IV usually with very dense setal fringe covering a basal impression on sternum IV.

<==Pselaphinae (see below for synonymy)NG05
    |--Faronini [Faroninae, Faronitae]R03
    |    |  i. s.: Prosagola Raffray 1903R03
    |    |           `--*P. elfridae (Reitt. 1885) [=Sagola elfridae]R03
    |    |         Salagosa Raffray 1903R03
    |    |           `--*S. brevipennis (Reitt. 1885) [=Sagola brevipennis]R03
    |    |         Golasa Raffray 1903R03
    |    |           `--*G. microcephala (Reitt. 1883) [=Sagola microcephala]R03
    |    |         Delenda Croissandeau 1891 [incl. Eusonoma Reitter 1893]R03
    |    |           `--D. carthago [incl. D. frivaldskyi]R03
    |    |         Exeirarthra Broun 1893R03
    |    |           |--E. enigma Broun 1893R03
    |    |           `--E. pallida Broun 1893R03
    |    |         Faronidius Casey 1887R03
    |    |           |--F. africanus Casey 1887R03
    |    |           `--F. monilis Raffray 1897R03
    |    |         Cretasonoma corinformibusLC20
    |    |         SagolaR03
    |    |--FaronusLC20
    |    `--+--Megarafonus Casey 1897LC20, R03 [incl. Nanorafonus Schuster & Marsh 1958NT01]
    |       |    |--M. (Nafonus) fundus Park 1943NT01
    |       |    `--M. ventralis Casey 1897R03
    |       `--SonomaLC20
    `--+--+--BythinoplectitaeLC20
       |  `--BrachyglutiniNG05
       |       |  i. s.: Obricala Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |           `--O. foveicollis (Raffray 1882) [=Batrisomorpha foveicollis]R04a
       |       |         Diroptrus Motschulsky 1858R04a
       |       |           |--D. ceylonicus Motsch. 1858R04a
       |       |           `--D. monoceros Raffray 1893R04a
       |       |         Bythinogaster Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |           `--B. simplex Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |         Berdura Reitter 1881R04a
       |       |           `--B. excisula Reitter 1883R04a
       |       |         Berlara Reitter 1881R04a
       |       |           `--B. crassipalpus Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |         Eupinopsis Raffay 1896R04a
       |       |           |--E. perforata [=Rytus perforatus]R04a
       |       |           `--E. punctata Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |         Mitona Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--M. bisulciceps Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--M. mniszechi Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--M. nigra Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--M. quadraticeps Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Xybaris Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |           |--X. atomaria Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--X. quadraticeps Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--X. sahlbergi Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |           |--X. spiniceps Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |           |--X. triangulifera [=Bryaxis triangulifera]R04a
       |       |           `--X. troglocera Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |         CryptorhinulaR04a
       |       |           |--C. longiceps Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |           |--C. longiclava Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |           |--C. nodiferaR04a
       |       |           |--C. oedipus [=Bryaxis oedipus]R04a
       |       |           |--C. schaufussi Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           |--C. trimioides [=Bryaxis trimioides]R04a
       |       |           `--C. xybaridoides Raffray 1904 [=C. xibaroides (l. c.)]R04a
       |       |         Rabyxis Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |           |--R. clavata Raffray 1903R04a
       |       |           |--R. heterocera Raffray 1903R04a
       |       |           |--R. madecassa Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           |--R. simplex Raffray 1903R04a
       |       |           `--R. striolata Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |         Bryaxella Raffray 1903R04a
       |       |           `--B. spectralis Raffray 1903R04a
       |       |         Xybarida Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           |--X. clavata Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           |--X. punctulum Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--X. pusilla [=Bryaxis pusilla]R04a
       |       |         Strombopsis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--*S. brevientris Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         AchilliaR04a
       |       |         BryaxinaR04a
       |       |         Braxyda Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--B. crassipes Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--B. hamata Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Anarmoxys Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |           `--A. simplicifrons Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |         Briara Reitter 1881R04a
       |       |           |--B. basalis King 1865 [incl. B. communis]R04a
       |       |           |--B. capitata Raffray 1900 [incl. B. basalis Schaufuss 1886 non King 1865]R04a
       |       |           |--B. dominorum (King 1865) [=Bryaxis dominorum; incl. Bryaxis breviuscula]R04a
       |       |           |--B. frontalis Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |           `--B. tertia Schaufuss 1886R04a
       |       |         Tribatus Motschulsky 1851 [incl. Abatrisops Reitter 1881]R04a
       |       |           |--T. creticus Reitter 1884R04a
       |       |           `--T. thoracicusR04a
       |       |         Physoplectus Reitter 1881R04a
       |       |           |--P. armipes (Raffray 1882) [=Euplectus armipes]R04a
       |       |           `--P. homalinus (Fauvel 1903)R05, R03 [=Amauronyx homalinusR05]
       |       |         Triomicrus Sharp 1883R04a
       |       |           |--T. cavernosus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--T. humilis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--T. protervus Sharp 1874R04a
       |       |           `--T. simplex Sharp 1883R04a
       |       |         Bryaxonoma Raffray 1898R04a
       |       |           `--B. filiceum Raffray 1898R04a
       |       |         Drasinus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--*D. binodulus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Ectopocerus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--*E. verticicornis (Reitter 1885) [=Decarthron verticicornis]R04a
       |       |         Bunoderus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--B. carinicollis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--B. longipilis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         ‘Nodulina’ Raffray 1904 non Rhumbler 1895R04a
       |       |           `--*N. ‘convexa’ [=Bryaxis convexa Schaufuss non Kiesenw. 1858]R04a
       |       |         Acamaldes Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |           |--A. bythinoides Reitter 1882R04a
       |       |           `--A. vagepunctatus Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |         ‘Phoberus’ Raffray 1904 non MacLeay 1819R04a
       |       |           `--*P. armatus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Eremomus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--E. crassicornis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--E. obesus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Gastrobothrus Broun 1886R04a
       |       |           |--G. abdominalis Broun 1880R04a
       |       |           |--G. platynotus (Broun 1893) [=Bryaxis platynota]R04a
       |       |           `--G. sharpi (Broun 1880) [=Bryaxis sharpi]R04a
       |       |         ‘Anasis’ Raffray 1891 non Castelnau 1867R04a
       |       |           |--A. impunctata Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--A. laevicollis Raffray 1891R04a
       |       |           `--A. singhalensis Raffray 1894R04a
       |       |         Anasopsis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--A. adumbrata Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           |--A. armipes (Fauvel 1903) [=Anasis armipes]R04a
       |       |           |--A. distans (Fauvel 1903) [=Anasis distans]R04a
       |       |           `--A. savesi (Raffray 1896) [=Anasis savesi; incl. Tychus aubei Montrouzier 1864 (n. n.)]R04a
       |       |         Startes Broun 1886R04a
       |       |           |--S. foveata Broun 1893R04a
       |       |           `--S. sculpturata Broun 1886R04a
       |       |         Euteleia Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--E. lewisi Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--E. nodosa Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           |--E. recens [=Bryaxis recens]R04a
       |       |           `--E. trifoveata Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Itamus Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--*I. laticeps Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |         Barada Raffray 1891R04a
       |       |           `--B. mucronata Raffray 1891R04a
       |       |         Globa Raffrray 1887R04a
       |       |           |--G. brevicornis Raffry 1890R04a
       |       |           |--G. laevis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |           `--G. longipes Raffray 1887R04a
       |       |         Arachis Raffray 1890R04a
       |       |           `--A. crassicornis (Raffray 1882) [=Batrisomorpha crassicornis]R04a
       |       |         Eupinoda Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |           |--E. amplipes Raffray 1900 [incl. E. diversicolor]R04a
       |       |           `--E. leana Raffray 1900R04a
       |       |         ‘Pedinopsis’ Raffray 1890 non Cotteau 1863R04a
       |       |           `--P. major (Raffray 1882) [=Euplectus major]R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ bisinuata Shaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ bythinoidesR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ calcarata Broun 1886R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ clara Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ crassipalpisR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ euplectodes Sharp 1874R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ fluviatilis Shaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ ignota Broun 1881R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ impressicollisR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ impubisR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ impunctata Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ inusitata Blackburn 1891R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ latifrons Sharp 1883R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ nasuta Broun 1880 [incl. B. naso]R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ pygmaeaR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ rubeculaR04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ spuria Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |        ‘Bryaxis’ truncata Schaufss 1887R04a
       |       |         Baraxina Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |           `--B. francoisi Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |         ‘Physa’ Raffray 1890 non Draparnaud 1801R04a
       |       |           `--P. inflata (Sharp 1874) [=Bryaxis inflata]R04a
       |       |         Acetalius Sharp 1883R04a
       |       |           `--A. dubius Sharp 1883R04a
       |       |         Simkinion Park & Pearce 1962PP62
       |       |           |--*S. prelaticum Park & Pearce 1962PP62
       |       |           `--S. bimanum Park & Pearce 1962PP62
       |       |--DecarthronNT01
       |       |--Eupsenius LeConte 1849 [Eupseniina]NT01
       |       |    |--E. dominicanus Schaufuss 1887R04a
       |       |    |--E. gibbicollis Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |    |--E. glaberR04a
       |       |    |--E. gracilis Raffray 1904R04a
       |       |    |--E. grouvellei Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |    |--E. longicollis Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |    |--E. mexicanus Raffray 1896R04a
       |       |    |--E. politus Reitter 1883R04a
       |       |    `--E. rufus Leconte 1863R04a
       |       |--PselaptinaNT01
       |       |    |--PselaptusR04a
       |       |    |--ScalenarthrusNT01
       |       |    |--Anchylarthron Brendel 1887 [incl. Verticinotus Brendel 1888]NT01
       |       |    |    |--A. cavicepsR04a
       |       |    |    |--A. cornutum Brendel 1865 [incl. A. inornatum Brendel 1865]R04a
       |       |    |    `--A. curtipenneR04a
       |       |    `--Eutrichites LeConte 1880NT01
       |       |         |--E. arizonensis Carlton 1989NT01
       |       |         |--E. zimmermanni Leconte 1880R04a
       |       |         `--E. zonatus (Brendel 1865)NT01 [=Bythinus zonatusR04a]
       |       `--BrachyglutinaNG05
       |            |--TrissemusNG05
       |            |--*Noduliceps latifronsNG05
       |            |--ReichenbachiaNG05
       |            |--EupinesNG05
       |            |--RybaxisNG05
       |            |--BatraxisNG05
       |            |--BrachyglutaLC20
       |            |--Ephymata Raffray 1904NG05, R04a
       |            |    `--*E. mucronata (Raffray 1895) [=Bryaxis mucronata]R04a
       |            |--Briaraxis Brendel 1894NT01
       |            |    `--B. depressa Brendel 1894R04a
       |            |--Atenisodus Raffray 1903NG05
       |            |    |--A. longicornis (Raffray 1895)NG05 [=Comatopselaphus longicornisR04a]
       |            |    `--A. macrophthalmus Raffray 1904R04a
       |            |--Nisaxis Casey 1886NT01
       |            |    |--N. maritima Casey 1887R04a
       |            |    |--N. parviceps Casey 1897R04a
       |            |    `--N. tomentosa (Aubé 1833) [=Bryaxis tomentosa; incl. N. tomentosa var. cincinnata Casey 1887]R04a
       |            `--Comatopselaphus Schaufuss 1882NG05
       |                 |--C. brevicornis Raffray 1903R04a
       |                 |--C. huonis Raffray 1903R04a
       |                 |--C. opacicollis Schaufuss 1882NG05
       |                 |--C. parcepunctatus Raffray 1904R04a
       |                 |--C. puncticollis Raffray 1895NG05
       |                 `--C. schaufussi Raffray 1903R04a
       `--+--+--+--Oropodes Casey 1893LC20, NT01
          |  |  |    |--O. chumashLC20
          |  |  |    `--O. orbiceps Casey 1893 [incl. Euplectus raffrayi Brendel 1898]R03
          |  |  `--Bythinini [Bryaxini]C90
          |  |       |--BryaxisR04a
          |  |       |--Speleochus Park 1951NT01
          |  |       |--Subterrochus Park 1960NT01
          |  |       |--Machaerodes Brendel 1890C90, R04a
          |  |       |    `--M. carinatus (Brendel 1865)R04a
          |  |       |--Pselaptrichus Brendel 1889 [incl. Vestitrichus Park 1953]NT01
          |  |       |    |--P. magaliaeNT01
          |  |       |    |--P. rothiC90
          |  |       |    `--P. tuberculipalpus Brendel 1889R04a
          |  |       `--Tychobythinus Ganglbauer 1896LC20, R04a
          |  |            |--T. cavifrons (Reitter 1880) [=Bythinus cavifrons]R04a
          |  |            |--T. latifrons Müller 1902R04a
          |  |            `--T. ottonis Ganglbauer 1896R04a
          |  `--EuplectitaeLC20
          `--PselaphitaeLC20
Pselaphinae incertae sedis:
  PselaphaulaxMW01
  SeracamauropsPN02
  TroglamauropsPN02
  CordiamauropsPN02
  ImtempsNG05
  Machadoites termitophilusN55
  TinarooZS10
  Malleecola myrmecophilaZS10
  BarybryaxisP92
  CtenistodesP92
  CymbalizonP92
  DantiscanusP92
  DeuterotyrusP92
  EuspinoidesP92
  GreysP92
  HagnometopiasP92
  HetereuplectusP92
  MonyxP92
  NugaculusP92
  NugatorP92
  PammigesP92
  PantobatrisusP92
  ParabryaxisP92
  TmesiphoroidesP92
  Gonatocerus tertius Schauf. 1886M96
  TosimusM96
    |--T. globulicornis Schauf. 1886M96
    |--T. longipes Schauf. 1886M96
    `--T. modestus Schauf. 1886M96
  Protrichonyx rafifronsLC20
  Valda Casey 1893R04a [ValdiniC90]
    `--V. frontalis Casey 1893R04a
  IniocyphiniNG05
    |--NatypleurinaNG05
    `--SunorfaNG05
  SpeleobaminiNT01
    |--Speleobama Park 1951NT01
    |    `--S. vana Park 1951NT01
    `--Prespelea Park 1953 [incl. Fusjuguma POark 1956]NT01
         |--P. copelandiC90
         `--P. quirsfeldiNT01
  ProteriniNG05
  ArnylliiniNG05
  GoniaceriniR03
  PlagiophorusNG05
  TychiniNG05
    |--BolbobythusR04a
    |--TychusR04a
    |--Hesperotychus Schuster & Marsh 1958NT01
    |--Custotychus Park & Wagner 1962NT01
    |    `--C. daggyiNT01
    |--Lucifotychus Park & Wagner 1962 [incl. Hylotychus Grigarick & Schuster 1962]NT01
    |    `--L. testaceusNT01
    |--Trichobythus Dodero 1900R04a
    |    `--T. anophthalmus Dodero 1900R04a
    |--Eccoptobythus Deville 1901R04a
    |    `--E. paradoxus Deville 1901R04a
    |--Xenobythus Peyerimhoff 1901R04a
    |    `--X. serulazi Peyerimhoff 1901R04a
    |--Harmophola Raffray 1896R04a
    |    `--H. clavata Raffr. 1896R04a
    |--Acrocomus Raffray 1893R04a
    |    `--A. cribratus Raffray 1893R04a
    |--Gnesion Raffray 1900R04a
    |    `--G. rufulum Raffray 1900R04a
    |--Dalmophysis Raffray 1896R04a
    |    `--D. cylindrica Raffray 1896R04a
    |--Nearctitychus Chandler 1988NT01
    |    `--N. sternalis (Raffray 1904)NT01
    |--Ouachitychus Chandler 1988NT01
    |    `--O. parvoculus Chandler 1988NT01
    |--Decatocerus Saulcy 1870R04a
    |    |--D. alhambrae Saulcy 1870R04a
    |    `--D. bicornis Reitter 1881R04a
    |--Machaerites Miller 1855R04a
    |    |--M. lucantei Saulcy 1878R04a
    |    `--M. spelaeus Miller 1855R04a
    |--Harmomima Raffray 1904R04a
    |    |--H. grandiceps Raffray 1904R04a
    |    `--H. impressicollis Raffray 1904R04a
    |--Atychodea Reitter 1883R04a
    |    |--A. lenticornis Reitter 1883NG05
    |    |--A. raffrayi Reitter 1883NG05
    |    |--A. simoniana Reitter 1883NG05
    |    `--A. singularis Reitter 1883NG05
    |--Bythoxenus Motschulsky 1859 [incl. Facetus]R04a
    |    |--B. argus Kraatz 1863R04a
    |    |--B. cristatus (Saulcy 1872) [=Machaerites cristatus]R04a
    |    |--B. revelierei Reitter 1881R04a
    |    `--B. subterraneus Motsch. 1859 [incl. B. plicatulus Schaufuss 1863]R04a
    |--Linderia Saulcy 1863R04a
    |    |--L. bonvouloiri Saulcy 1865R04a
    |    |--L. clarae Schaufuss 1863R04a
    |    |--L. mariae (Jacq. Duval 1859) [=Machaerites mariae]R04a
    |    `--L. troglodytes Fiori 1899R04a
    |--Glyphobythus Raffray 1904R04a
    |    |--G. doriae [=Machaerites doriae]R04a
    |    |--G. gracilipes (Deville 1899) [=Machaerites gracilipes]R04a
    |    |--G. maritimus (Reitter 1884) [=Machaerites maritimus]R04a
    |    `--G. vaccae (Dodero 1900) [=Bythoxenus vaccae; incl. B. vaccae var. bensae Dodero 1900]R04a
    |--Cylindrarctus Schaufuss 1887R04a
    |    |--C. americanusR04a
    |    |--C. comes Casey 1893R04a
    |    |--C. crinifer Casey 1893R04a
    |    |--C. longipalpisC90 [=Tychus longipalpusR04a]
    |    `--C. ludovicianus (Brendel 1893) [=Tychus ludovicianus]R04a
    |--Apoplectus Raffray 1890 [incl. Glapharsenus Raffray 1903]R04a
    |    |--A. asperatus Raffray 1903R04a
    |    |--A. crassus (Raffray 1882) [=Euplectus crassus]R04a
    |    |--A. latus Raffray 1903R04a
    |    |--A. microphthalmus Raffray 1903 [incl. A. microphthalmus var. sublaevis Raffray 1903]R04a
    |    `--A. punctatus Raffray 1903R04a
    |--Batrybraxis Reitter 1882R04a
    |    |--B. caviceps Raffray 1896R04a
    |    |--B. curtula Reitter 1882R04a
    |    |--B. fortis Reitter 1882R04a
    |    |--B. inflexa Schaufuss 1887R04a
    |    |--B. longipennis (Raffray 1890) [=Arthmius longipennis]R04a
    |    `--B. punctipennis Reitter 1882R04a
    `--Dalmodes [incl. Batrisobryaxis Schaufuss 1887]R04a
         |--D. brevicollis Sharp 1887R04a
         |--D. ensipes Raffray 1890R04a
         |--D. gracilipes Raffray 1904R04a
         |--D. labialis [=Batrisobryaxis labialis]R04a
         |--D. plicatulus (Schaufuss 1882) [=Trichonyx plicatulus]R04a
         |--D. rybaxoides Reitter 1882R04a
         |--D. schaufussi Raffr. 1896R04a
         `--D. venustulus [=Trichonyx venustulus]R04a
Nomen nudum: Eupsenius aequatorialis Motschulsky 1855R04b

Pselaphinae [Brachyscelidae, Bryaxinae, Clavigeridae, Goniacerinae, Goniaceritae, Pselaphi, Pselaphidae, Pselaphides, Pselaphii]NG05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C90] Chandler, D. S. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Pselaphidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1175–1190. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LC20] Lü, L., C.-Y. Cai, X. Zhang, A. F. Newton, M. K. Thayer & H.-Z. Zhou. 2020. Linking evolutionary mode to palaeoclimate change reveals rapid radiations of staphylinoid beetles in low-energy conditions. Current Zoology 66 (4): 435–444.

[M96] Masters, G. 1896. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, part II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, Paussidae, Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Parnidae, Heteroceridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (Suppl.): 695–754.

[MW01] Molleman, F., & D. E. Walter. 2001. Niche segregation and can-openers: scydmaenid beetles as predators of armoured mites in Australia. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 283–288 Publishing: Melbourne.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[N55] Noirot, C. 1955. Termites du centre et du sud-ouest de l’Angola récoltés par A. de Barros Machado. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 139–150.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1–2): 1–36.

Park, O. 1942. A study in Neotropical Pselaphidae. Northwestern University Studies in the Biological Sciences and Medicine 1: i–x, 1–403, 21 pls.

[PP62] Park, O., & E. J. Pearce. 1962. Simkinion, a new genus of pselaphid beetles from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 251–258.

Park, O., J. A. Wagner & M. W. Sanderson. 1976. Review of the pselaphid beetles of the West Indies (Coleopt., Pselaphidae). Fieldiana Zoology 68: 1–90.

[PN02] Poggi, R., G. Nonveiller, A. Colla, D. Pavićević & T. Rađa. 2001–2002. Thaumastocephalini, a new tribe of Pselaphinae for Thaumastocephalus folliculipalpus n. gen., n. sp., an interesting new troglobious species from central Dalmatia (Croatia) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 94: 1–20.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

Raffray, A. 1891. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). 10e Mémoire. Psélaphides. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, ser. 6, 10: 297–330, pl. 6.

[R03] Raffray, A. 1903. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 72: 484–604.

[R04a] Raffray, A. 1904a. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides [part II]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 73: 1–400.

[R04b] Raffray, A. 1904b. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides [part III]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 73: 401–476, pls 1–3.

[R05] Raffray, A. 1905. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides [part IV]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 73: 635–658.

Sharp, D. 1887. Fam. Pselaphidae. In: Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. Coleoptera vol. 2 pt 1 pp. 1–46.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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