Pseudomelatomidae

Leucosyrinx subgrundifera, copyright Worldwide Conchology.

Belongs within: Conoidea.
Contains: Antiplanes, Epideira, Megasurcula, Austrotoma, Compsodrillia, Lioglyphostoma, Comitas, Knefastia, Pseudomelatoma, Carinodrillia, Inquisitor, Crassispira (Crassispira).

The Pseudomelatomidae are a diverse group of conoid gastropods, usually with well developed spiral and axial sculpture (Bouchet et al. 2011). Members include the genus Leucosyrinx, found in deep ocean basins and characterised by lightly built shells with a tall turreted or pagodiform spire. Species of Crassispira possess a solid, usually dark brown or black shell with a more or less strong subsutural fold (Powell 1966).

Characters (from Bouchet et al. 2011): Shell small to rather large, 15–100 mm high, claviform to fusiform. Spiral and axial sculpture generally well developed, often strong. Subsutural fold often present. Anal sinus on subsutural ramp, usually moderately deep to very deep, often constrained by callus rendering anal sinus subtubular. Protoconch usually paucispiral, sometimes multispiral, with up to three whorls, smooth or sometimes axially or spirally sculptured on later whorls. Operculum with terminal nucleus. Radula very variable; radular formula 1-(1-R-1)-1, 1-1-0-1-1, 1-0-R-0-1 or 1-0-0-0-1.

<==Pseudomelatomidae [Crassispirinae, Pseudomelatominae, Zonulispirinae]PK11
|--Leucosyrinx Dall 1889PK11, BW80
| |--*L. verrilli (Dall 1881) (see below for synonymy)BW80
| |--L. amycus Dall 1919O27
| |--L. caecilia Thiele 1925P66
| |--L. casearia Hedley & Petterd 1906H22
| |--L. elsa Thiele 1925P66
| |--L. erna Thiele 1925P66
| |--L. falklandica Powell 1951P66
| |--L. galapagana Dall 1919D19
| |--L. iwaensis MacNeil 1960P66
| |--L. julia Thiele 1925P66
| |--L. kincaidi Dall 1919O27
| |--L. macrobertsoni Powell 1958P66
| |--L. mawsoni Powell 1958P66
| |--L. paragenota Powell 1951P66
| |--L. pikei (Dell 1963) [=Waitara pikei]P66
| |--L. sansibarica Thiele 1925P66
| |--L. subgrundifera (Dall 1888) [=Pleurotoma subgrundifera]P66
| |--L. suratensis (Thiele 1925) [=Surcula suratensis]P66
| `--L. tenoceras Dall 1889P66
`--+--+--ComitasPK11
| `--KnefastiaPK11
`--+--+--PseudomelatomaPK11
| `--Tiariturris Berry 1958PK11, BK11
| |--*T. spectabilis Berry 1958P66
| `--T. libya (Dall 1919)SK81
`--+--Otitoma Jousseaume 1898PK11, BK11 [incl. Thelecytharella Shuto 1969BK11]
| `--*O. ottitoma Jousseaume 1898 [=Raphitoma ottitoma]P66
`--+--CarinodrilliaPK11
|--+--Pyrgospira McLean 1971PK11, BK11
| | |--P. aenone (Dall 1919)PK11
| | `--P. obeliscus (Reeve 1843)PP78
| `--+--Zonulispira Bartsch 1950PK11, BK11
| | |--*Z. zonulata (Reeve 1842)BR17 [=Pleurotoma zonulataBR17, Crassispira (*Zonulispira) zonulataP66]
| | |--Z. chrysochildosa Shasky 1971BC01
| | `--Z. reigeni Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Zonulispira) reigeni]P66
| `--Pilsbryspira McLean 1971PK11, BK11
| | i. s.: P. albomaculata (Orbigny 1842)S11
| | P. jayana (Adams 1850)PK11
| | P. leucocyma (Dall 1883)M75 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. (Pilsbryspira)BK11
| | |--*P. (P.) pilsbryi Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (*P.) pilsbryi]P66
| | `--P. (P.) garciacubasi Shasky 1971BC01
| `--P. (Nymphispira McLean 1971)BK11
`--+--Hindsiclava Hertlein & Strong 1955PK11, BK11 [incl. Turrigemma Berry 1958BK11]
| |--*H. militaris (Hinds 1843) [=Clavatula militaris]P66
| |--H. alesidota (Dall 1889)PK11
| |--H. andromeda (Dall 1919) [=Clathrodrillia andromeda]P66
| |--H. dotella (Hinds 1843) [=Turris (Surcula) dotella]P66
| |--H. hertleini Emerson & Radwin 1969BC01
| `--*Turrigemma’ torquifer Berry 1958P66
`--+--+--Cheungbeia Taylor & Wells 1994PK11, BK11
| | `--C. robusta (Hinds 1839)PK11
| `--Funa Kilburn 1988PK11, BK11
| `--F. incerta (Smith 1877)PK11
`--+--InquisitorPK11
`--+--Ptychobela Thiele 1925PK11, BK11 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. nodulosa (Gmelin 1791) (see below for synonymy)KD08
| |--P. crenularis (Lamarck 1816)P66 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. dancei Kilburn & Dekker 2008KD08
| |--P. flavidula (Lamarck 1822)MG-H11 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. opisthochetos Kilburn 1989KD08
| |--‘Pleurotoma’ stromboides Sowerby 1832 (n. d.)P66 (see below for synonymy)
| |--‘Pleurotoma’ sumatrensis Petit 1852 [=Brachytoma sumatrensis]P66
| `--P. suturalis (Gray 1838)PK11
`--Crassispira Swainson 1840PK11, BK11
| i. s.: C. funebralis Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995BC01
| C. latiriformis (Melvill 1923) [=Drillia latiriformis]KD08
| C. monilecosta Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995BC01
| C. oliva Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995BC01
| C. pini Fernandes, Rolán & Otero-Schmitt 1995BC01
| C. quadrilirata (Smith 1882)PK11
| C. sacerdotalis Rolán & Fernandes 1992BC01
| C. safagaensis Kilburn & Dekker 2008KD08
| C. vibicina (Helbling 1779) [incl. Pleurotoma interrupta Lamarck 1816]KD08
|--C. (Crassispira)BK11
`--C. (Crassispirella Bartsch & Rehder 1939)BK11
|--C. (*C.) rugitecta (Dall 1918)P66 [=Turris (Crassispira) rugitectaD19]
|--C. (C.) ebenina (Dall 1890) [=Drillia ebenina]P66
|--C. (C.) fuscescens (Reeve 1843) [=Pleurotoma fuscescens]P66
|--C. (C.) hadromeres (Melvill 1927) [=Melatoma hadromeres]P66
|--C. (C.) nigrescens (Adams 1845) [=Pleurotoma nigrescens]P66
|--C. (C.) sanibelensis Bartsch & Rehder 1939P66
`--C. (C.) tampaensis Bartsch & Rehder 1939P66

Pseudomelatomidae incertae sedis:
AntiplanesBK11
EpideiraBK11
MegasurculaBK11
Naudedrillia Kilburn 1988BK11
Abyssocomitas Sysoev & Kantor 1986BK11
Aguilaria Taylor & Wells 1994BK11
AustrotomaBK11
Calcatodrilla Dall 1919BK11
CompsodrilliaBK11
Cretaspira Kuroda & Oyama in Kuroda, Habe & Oyama 1971BK11
Gibbaspira McLean 1971BK11
Glossispira McLean 1971BK11
Kurodadrillia Azuma 1975BK11
LioglyphostomaBK11
Lioglyphostomella Shuto 1970BK11
Megittia Ray 1977BK11
Pseudotaranis McLean 1995BK11
Crassiclava McLean 1971BK11
`--C. turricula (Sowerby 1834)BK11
Conorbela Powell 1951BK11
`--*C. antarctica (Strebel 1908) [=Bela antarctica]P66
Plicisyrinx Sysoev & Kantor 1986BK11
`--P. vitjazi Sysoev & Kantor 1986BK11
Maesiella McLean 1971BK11
`--M. maesae McLean & Poorman 1971BK11
Kurilohadalia Sysoev & Kantor 1986BK11
`--K. elongata Sysoev & Kantor 1986BK11
Anticomitas Powell 1942BK11
`--*A. vivens Powell 1942P66
Benthodaphne Oyama 1962BK11
`--*B. glabra (Yokoyama 1920) [=Pleurotoma (Bela) glabra]P66
Conticosta Laseron 1954BK11
`--*C. petilinus (Hedley 1922) [=Inquisitor petilinus]P66
Doxospira McLean 1971BK11
`--D. hertleini Shasky 1971BC01
Hormospira Berry 1958BK11
|--*H. maculosa (Sowerby 1834) [=Pleurotoma maculosa]P66
`--H. libya (Dall 1919) [=Turricula libya]P66
Burchia Bartsch 1944BK11
|--*B. redondoensis (Burch 1938) (see below for synonymy)P66
`--B. clionella (Dall 1908) [=Leucosyrinx clionella, Crassispira (Burchia) clionella]P66
Buridrillia Olsson 1942BK11
|--*B. panarica (Olsson 1942) [=Clathrodrillia (*Buridrillia) panarica]P66
`--B. deroyorum Emerson & McLean 1992BC01
Carinoturris Bartsch 1944BK11
|--*C. adrastia (Dall 1919) [=Cryptogemma adrastia]P66
|--C. fortis Bartsch 1944P66
`--C. polycaste (Dall 1919) [=Cryptogemma polycaste]P66
Dallspira Bartsch 1950BK11
|--*D. dalli Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (*Dallspira) dalli]P66
|--D. bifurca (Smith 1888) [=Crassispira (Dallspira) bifurca]PP78
|--D. lowei Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Dallspira) lowei]P66
`--D. martiae (McLean & Poorman 1971) [=Crassispira (Dallspira) martiae]BC01
Rhodopetoma Bartsch 1944BK11
|--*R. rhodope (Dall 1919) [=Borsonella rhodope]P66
|--R. akkeshiensis Habe 1958P66
|--R. amycus (Dall 1919) [=Antiplanes amycus]P66
`--‘Pleurotoma (Clavatula)’ erosa Schrenck 1867P66
Viridrillia Bartsch 1943 [incl. Viridrillina Bartsch 1943]BK11
|--*V. williami Bartsch 1943P66
|--V. bahamensis Bartsch 1943P66
|--V. cervina Bartsch 1943P66
`--V. hendersoni Bartsch 1943 [=V. (*Viridrillina) hendersoni]P66
Miraclathurella Woodring 1928BK11
|--*M. vittata Woodring 1928 [=Euclathurella (*Miraclathurella) vittata]P66
|--M. amica (Pilsbry & Johnson 1917) [=Clathurella amica, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) amica]P66
|--M. entemna Woodring 1928 [=Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) entemna]P66
|--M. gracilis (Gabb 1873) [=Defrancia gracilis, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) gracilis]P66
`--M. subconsors (Bose 1910) (see below for synonymy)P66
Striospira Bartch 1950BK11
|--*S. lucasensis (Bartsch 1950) [=Crassispira (*Striospira) lucasensis]P66
|--S. cortezi Shasky & Campbell 1964 [=Crassispira (Striospira) cortezi]P66
|--S. luctuosa (Hinds 1843) [=Pleurotoma luctuosa, Crassispira (Striospira) luctuosa]P66
|--S. tabogaensis Bartsch 1950 [=Crassispira (Striospira) tabogaensis]P66
`--S. unicolor (Sowerby 1834) [=Pleurotoma unicolor, Crassispira (Striospira) unicolor]P66
Monilispira Bartsch & Rehder 1939BK11
|--*M. monilis Bartsch & Rehder 1939 [=Crassispira (*Monilispira) monilis]P66
|--M. archeri Fargo 1953 [=Crassispira (Monilispira) archeri]P66
|--M. bandata (Usticke 1969) [=Psarostola bandata]BC01
|--M. monilifera (Carpenter 1856) [=Drillia monilifera, Crassispira (Monilispira) monilifera]P66
|--M. nephele (Dall 1919) [=Crassispira (Monilispira) nephele]P66
`--M. ochsneri Hertlein & Strong 1949 (see below for synonymy)P66
Antimelatoma Powell 1942BK11
|--A. buchanani (Hutton 1873) [=Pleurotoma buchanani]P66
| |--A. b. buchananiP66
| `--*A. b. maorum (Smith 1877) [=Drillia maorum]P66
|--A. ahiparana Powell 1942P66
|--A. benthicola Powell 1942P66
`--A. canyonensis Dell 1956P66
Paracomitas Powell 1942BK11
|--*P. castlecliffensis (Marshall & Murdoch 1919) [=Surcula castlecliffensis]P66
|--P. augusta (Murdoch & Suter 1906) [=Pleurotoma (Leucosyrinx) augusta]P66
| |--P. a. augustaP61
| `--P. a. powelli Dell 1956P61
|--P. gemmea (Murdoch 1900) [=Pleurotoma gemmea]P66
|--P. gypsata (Watson 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) gypsata]P66
|--P. protransenna (Marshall & Murdoch 1923) [=Surcula protransenna]P66
`--P. rodgersi MacNeil 1960P66
Sediliopsis Petuch 1988BK11
`--S. incilifera (Conrad 1834)P12
Shutonia Van der Bijl 1993BK11

*Burchia redondoensis (Burch 1938) [=Pseudomelatoma semiinflata redondoensis, Crassispira (*Burchia) redondoensis]P66

*Leucosyrinx verrilli (Dall 1881) [=Pleurotoma (Pleurotomella) verrilli; incl. P. talismani var. attenuata Locard 1897, P. talismani var. curta Locard 1897 nec P. formosa var. curta Locard 1897 nec P. leptoconchum var. curta Locard 1897, P. devestitum Locard 1897, P. talismani var. elongata Locard 1897 nec P. elongata Deshayes 1834 nec P. nebula elongata Jeffreys 1867, Surcula gradata Thiele 1925, Leucosyrinx janetae Bartsch 1934, Pleurotoma (Pleurotomella) sigsbeei Dall 1881, P. (Leucosyrinx) sigsbeei, P. talismani Locard 1897]BW80

Miraclathurella subconsors (Bose 1910) [=Pleurotoma (Drillia) subconsors, Euclathurella (Miraclathurella) subconsors]P66

Monilispira ochsneri Hertlein & Strong 1949 [=Crassispira (Monilispira) ochsneri; incl. Pleurotoma bicolor Sowerby 1834 non Risso 1826]P66

Pilsbryspira leucocyma (Dall 1883)M75 [=Drillia leucocymaP66, Crassispira (Monilispira) leucocymaM75]

‘Pleurotoma’ stromboides Sowerby 1832 (n. d.)P66 [=*Brachytoma stromboidesBR17, P. strombiformis Sowerby 1839P66, B. strombiformisP66, *Strombina stromboidesP66]

Ptychobela Thiele 1925PK11, BK11 [incl. Brachytoma Swainson 1840 (n. d.)BK11, Strombina Gregorio 1890 nec Mörch 1852P66; Brachytominae]

Ptychobela crenularis (Lamarck 1816)P66 [=Pleurotoma crenularisP66, Brachytoma crenularisP66, Clavatula crenularisP66, Drillia crenularisH22, Inquisitor crenularisP66]

Ptychobela flavidula (Lamarck 1822)MG-H11 [=Pleurotoma flavidulaP66, Brachytoma flavidulaP66, Drillia flavidulaH22, Inquisitor flavidulusP66]

Ptychobela nodulosa (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex nodulosus; incl. Pleurotoma crenularis Thiele 1925 non Lamarck 1816, *Ptychobela crenularis]KD08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[D19] Dall, W. H. 1919. Descriptions of new species of mollusks of the family Turritidae from the west coast of America and adjacent regions. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 56 (2288): 1–86, pls 1–24.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[KD08] Kilburn, R. N., & H. Dekker. 2008. New species of turrid conoideans (Gastropoda: Conoidea) from the Red Sea and Arabia. Basteria 72 (1–3): 1–19.

[M75] Maes, V. O. 1975. The genus Pilsbryspira: its position in history and the family Turridae. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union 1975: 60–61.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[SK81] Shimek, R. L., & A. J. Kohn. 1981. Functional morphology and evolution of the toxoglossan radula. Malacologia 20 (2): 432–438.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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