Brown-backed parrotlet Touit melanonotus, copyright Dario Sanches.

Belongs within: Psittaciformes.
Contains: Poicephalus, Psittacus, Androglossini, Brotogeris, Forpus, Arini.

The Psittacidae are a group of parrots that were treated by Joseph et al. 2012 as uniting the African Psittacinae with the Neotropical Arinae. Earlier authors had commonly used ‘Psittacidae’ in a broader sense covering most or all of the living parrots. The Psittacinae have also included many of the more ‘generalised’ parrot species but such a grouping has not been supported phylogenetically. The Arinae are morphologically diverse but biogeographically distinct, being the only clade of parrots native to the Neotropics.

<==Psittacidae [Psittacea, Psittacini]JoTo12
    |    |--Amoropsittaca aymaraRN72
    |    |--Gypopsitta vulturinaRN72
    |    |--PoicephalusJoTo12
    |    |--PsittacusBKB15
    |    |--Xenopsitta Mlíkovský 1998MG04
    |    |    `--*X. fejfari Mlíkovský 1998M02
    |    |--Microsittace ferrugineaRN72
    |    |    |--M. f. ferrugineaRN72
    |    |    `--M. f. minorRN72
    |    `--ConuropsisRN72
    |         |--C. carolinensisRN72 [=Conurus carolinensisSWK87]
    |         |    |--C. c. carolinensisD81
    |         |    `--C. c. ludovicianaD81
    |         `--C. fratercula Wetmore 1927U93
    `--Arinae [Arainae]JoTo12
         |    |--P. aurifronsBKB15
         |    |    |--P. a. aurifronsRN72
         |    |    |--P. a. robertsiRN72
         |    |    `--P. a. rubrirostrisRN72
         |    `--P. aymaraBKB15
            |  |  `--+--BrotogerisBKB15
            |  |     `--Myiopsitta monachusBKB15
            |  |          |--M. m. monachusRN72
            |  |          |--M. m. calitaRN72
            |  |          |--M. m. cotorraRN72
            |  |          `--M. m. luchsiRN72
            |  `--+--ForpusBKB15
            |     `--+--AriniBKB15
            |        `--+--Deroptyus accipitrinusBKB15
            |           |    |--D. a. accipitrinusRN72
            |           |    `--D. a. fuscifrons Hellmayr 1905RN72
            |           `--Pionites Heine 1890BKB15, B94 [Pionitini]
            |                |--P. leucogasterBKB15
            |                |    |--P. l. leucogasterRN72
            |                |    `--P. l. xanthomeriaRN72 [incl. P. xanthurusC88]
            |                `--P. melanocephalusBKB15
            |                     |--P. m. melanocephalusRN72
            |                     `--P. m. pallidaRN72
            `--+--‘Touit’ batavicusBKB15
                  |    |--T. costaricensisJeTh12 [=T. dilectissima costaricensisRN72]
                  |    |--T. dilectissimusJeTh12
                  |    |--T. huetiiJeTh12
                  |    |--T. melanonotusJeTh12
                  |    |--T. purpuratusBKB15
                  |    |    |--T. p. purpuratusJeTh12
                  |    |    `--T. p. viridicepsJeTh12
                  |    |--T. stictopterusJeTh12 [incl. T. emmaeRN72]
                  |    `--T. surdus (Kuhl 1820)JeTh12, RN72
                       |--N. panychlora (Salvin & Godman 1883)BKB15, RN72
                       `--+--N. dachilleaeBKB15
                               |--B. andicolusRN72
                               |--B. ferrugineifronsJeTh12
                               |--B. lineolaBKB15
                               |    |--B. l. lineolaRN72
                               |    |--B. l. maculatusRN72
                               |    `--B. l. tigrinusRN72
                               `--B. orbygnesiusJeTh12 (see below for synonymy)
Psittacidae incertae sedis:
  Necropsittacus Milne-Edwards 1874FS01, JoTo12
    |--N. borbonicusFP64
    `--N. rodericanusFS01
  Lophopsittacus Newton 1875FS01, JoTo12
    |--L. bensoniFS01
    `--L. mauritianusFS01
  Pyrrhulopsis personatusMS55
  Pararallus Lambrecht 1933MG04, M02
    |--*P. dispar (Milne-Edwards 1869)M02, MG04, M02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--P. hassenkampi Martini 1967M02
  Caica barrabandiSS66
  Eupsittula ocularisS18

Bolborhynchus orbygnesiusJeTh12 [=Psilopsiagon aurifrons orbygnesiusRN72; incl. P. aurifrons margaritaeRN72]

*Pararallus dispar (Milne-Edwards 1869)M02, MG04, M02 [=Rallus disparM02; incl. Psittacus lartetianus Milne-Edwards 1872MG04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[C88] Cracraft, J. 1988. Deep-history biogeography: retrieving the historical pattern of evolving continental biotas. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 221–236.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T., & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[JeTh12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JoTo12] Joseph, L., A. Toon, E. E. Schirtzinger, T. F. Wright & R. Schodde. 2012. A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes). Zootaxa 3205: 26–40.

[MG04] Mayr, G., & U. B. Göhlich. 2004. A new parrot from the Miocene of Germany, with comments on the variation of hypotarsus morphology in some Psittaciformes. Belgian Journal of Zoology 134: 476–54.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

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