Psocinae

 Psocomesites guangzhouensis, from Li (2002).

Belongs within: Psocetae.
Contains: Psocus, Psocidus, Psococerastis, Clematoscenea, Metylophorus, Sigmatoneura, Ptycta, Indiopsocus, Mecampsis, Trichadenotecnum, Loensia, Symbiopsocus.

The Psocinae is a diverse group of barklice, some of which are particularly large for that order. Historically, this group has been divided between the Cerastipsocinae, with antennae usually much longer than the fore wing, and Psocinae sensu stricto, with antennae usually shorter than or only slightly longer than the fore wing. The Indo-Australian Cycetes has vein R4+5 in the fore wing recurved to touch vein M whereas other psocines have this vein free (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Fore wing vein M comprising distal border of discoidal cell usually concave or straight, only rarely convex. Male hypandrial sclerites confined or largely confined to sternite 9; sternite 8 never wholly sclerotised, so male abdomen apex not ‘encapsulated’; parameres forming a closed frame or frame open posteriorly, never divergent or thickened distally; apophysis of male paraproct with pointed apex. Female with apex of dorsal gonapophysis valve variable.

<==Psocinae [Cerastipsocinae]NL07
    |  i. s.: Ghesquierella Badonnel 1949L98
    |           `--*G. ealensis Badonnel 1949L98
    |         Atlantopsocus Badonnel 1944L98
    |           |--A. adustus (Hagen 1865) [=Psocus adustus; incl. *A. chopardi Badonnel 1944]L98
    |           |--A. parvidens Baz 1988L98
    |           |--A. personatus (Hagen 1865) (see below for synonymy)L98
    |           |--A. semicircularis Baz 1989L98
    |           `--A. triangularis Meinander 1973L98
    |--Cycetes [incl. Goya; Cycetini]NL07
    |    |--*C. thyrsophoroides Enderlein 1907 [incl. *Goya pictus]NL07
    |    `--C. collessiNL07
    |--PsociniNL07
    |    |--PsocusNL07
    |    |--PsocidusNL07
    |    |--Sacopsocus Li 2002L02
    |    |    `--*S. quadricornis Li 2002L02
    |    |--AtrichadenotecnumNL07
    |    |    |--*A. quadripunctatumNL07
    |    |    |--A. nebulosum (Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991)NL07
    |    |    |--A. umbratum (New & Thornton 1976)NL07
    |    |    `--A. yoshizawai Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
    |    `--Atropsocus Mockford 1993M93
    |         `--*A. atratus (Aaron 1883) [=Psocus atratus, Trichadenotecnum atratum]M93
    |--CerastipsociniNL07
    |    |--PsococerastisNL07
    |    |--ClematosceneaNL07
    |    |--Eremopsocus [incl. Syngonosoma]NL07
    |    |--Sundapsocus Smithers 1995S95
    |    |    `--*S. robertsoni Smithers 1995NL07
    |    |--Pogonopsocus Li 2002L02
    |    |    `--*P. octofaris Li 2002L02
    |    |--Lubricus Li 2002L02
    |    |    `--*L. dayaoshanensis Li 2002L02 [=L. dayaoshanicusL03]
    |    |--Propsococerastis Li & Yang 1988L02 [=Porpsococerastis (l. c.)L03]
    |    |    `--*P. jiangkouensis Li & Yang 1988L02
    |    |--Ceratostigma Li 2002L02 [=CeratostigmasL03, CeratostigmusL02]
    |    |    |--*C. gracile Li 2002L03
    |    |    `--C. macrostigmatum (Li & Yang 1987)L03, L02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--SetopsocusNL07
    |    |    |--*S. magnus Smithers & Thornton 1981NL07
    |    |    `--S. hirsutus (New 1975) [=Psocidus hirsutus]NL07
    |    |--Neopsocus Kolbe 1882 [incl. Barnola Navás 1909]L98
    |    |    |--*N. rhenanus Kolbe 1882 (see below for synonymy)L98
    |    |    `--N. tunesicus (Enderlein 1923) [=Clematostigma tunesicum; incl. Ptycta hispanica Meinander 1981]L98
    |    |--Cerastipsocus Kolbe 1884 [incl. Cerastis Kolbe 1883 non Ochsenheimer 1816, Titella Navás 1912]M93
    |    |    |--*C. fuscipennisM93
    |    |    |--C. acraceocristatusM74
    |    |    |--C. cubanus Enderlein 1919M74
    |    |    |--‘Psocus’ gregarius Walker 1853 (see below for synonymy)M93
    |    |    |--C. sivoriiM74
    |    |    `--C. trifasciatus (Provancher 1876) (see below for synonymy)M93
    |    |--Pseudoclematus Li 1992M03
    |    |    `--*P. xanthoznatus Li 1992L02, L03 [=P. xanthozanatusL03, P. xanthozonatus (l. c.)L03]
    |    `--Longivalvus Li 1993M03
    |         |--*L. dictyodromus Li 1993L02
    |         |--L. hyalospilus Li 2002L02
    |         |--L. lagenarius Li 2002L02
    |         |--L. nubilus (Enderlein 1906) (see below for synonymy)M03
    |         |--L. pleuranthus Li 2002L02
    |         |--L. radiatus Li 1993L02
    |         `--L. shennongicus Li 2002L02
    |--MetylophoriniNL07
    |    |--MetylophorusNL07
    |    |--SigmatoneuraNL07
    |    |--DiplacanthodaNL07
    |    |--Lipsocus Lienhard 2003L03 [=Cyclotus Li 2002 non Guilding in Swainson 1840L02]
    |    |    |--*L. bannaicus (Li 2002) [=*Cyclotus bannaicus]L03
    |    |    |--L. guizhouensis (Li & Yang 1988)L03, L02 [=Psococerastis guizhouensisL02, Cyclotus guizhouensisL03]
    |    |    `--L. microcorneus (Li 2002) [=Cyclotus microcorneus]L03
    |    |--Pearmania Badonnel 1946B55, L02
    |    |    |--P. crenulata New 1973L02
    |    |    |--P. fucataB55
    |    |    `--P. nebulosa Badonnel 1955B55
    |    `--PilipsocusB55
    |         |--P. angolensis Badonnel 1955B55
    |         |--P. congolensisB55
    |         |--P. ghesquierei Badonnel 1949B55
    |         |--P. intricatus (Enderlein 1910) [=Psocus intricatus, Psocidus intricatus]B55
    |         |--P. lepesmeiB55
    |         |--P. machadoi Badonnel 1955B55
    |         `--P. vilhenai Badonnel 1955B55
    `--Ptyctini [Oreopsocini, Trichadenotecnini]NL07
         |--PtyctaNL07
         |--IndiopsocusM93
         |--MecampsisL02
         |--TrichadenotecnumYL15
         |--LoensiaL02
         |--*Elytropsocus coleoptratus Smithers & Thornton 1981NL07
         |--*Kaindipsocus mixtus Smithers & Thornton 1981NL07
         |--MaheellaNL07
         |--Pseudoptycta Li 2002L02
         |    `--*P. pinicola Li 2002L02
         |--SteleopsM93 [incl. PelmatocoriaM74]
         |    |--*S. punctipennisM93
         |    |--S. elegans (Banks 1904) [=Psocus elegans, Psocidus elegans]M93
         |    `--S. lichenatus (Walsh 1863) [=Psocus lichenatus, Amphigerontia lichenatus, Psocidus lichenatus]M93
         |--JavapsocusNL07
         |    |--*J. intimadentatus Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
         |    |--J. smithersi Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
         |    |--J. soegiri Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
         |    `--J. ungulatus Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
         |--Camelopsocus Mockford 1965M93
         |    |--*C. monticolus Mockford 1965M93
         |    |--C. bactrianus Mockford 1984M93
         |    |--C. hiemalis Mockford 1984M93
         |    |--C. similis Mockford 1965M93
         |    `--C. tucsonensis Mockford 1984M93
         |--Hyalopsocus Roesler 1954L02 [incl. Pictopsocus Lienhard 1983L98, Tiliapsocus Smithers 1983L98]
         |    |--*H. contrarius (Reuter 1893)L98 [=Psocus contrariusL98, Copostigma contrariaL02]
         |    |--H. deltoides (Li 1992) [=Ptycta deltoides]L02
         |    |--H. floridanus (Banks 1905) [=Psocus floridanus]M93
         |    |--‘Psocus’ frontalis Harris 1869 (see below for synonymy)M93
         |    |--H. gardinii (Lienhard 1983) [=Pictopsocus gardinii, Tiliapsocus gardinii]L98
         |    `--H. morio (Latreille 1794)L98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Clematostigma Enderlein 1906L02
         |    |--*C. maculiceps (Enderlein 1903)L02 [=Copostigma maculicepsNL07]
         |    |--C. brevistylus (Enderlein 1903)NL07
         |    |--C. excavatum Li 2002 [=C. excavata, C. excvata]L03
         |    |--C. forcipata Li 2002L02
         |    |--C. fumatum (Enderlein 1903)NL07
         |    |--C. indica Enderlein 1903L02
         |    `--C. sasmoko Endang, Thornton & New 2002NL07
         |--Copostigma Enderlein 1903NL07, L02
         |    |--*C. dorsopunctatum Enderlein 1903NL07
         |    |--C. bilineatum (Smithers & Thornton 1981)NL07
         |    |--C. hyalina Okamoto 1907L02
         |    |--C. ‘hyalinum’ (Smithers & Thornton 1981) non C. hyalina Okamoto 1907NL07
         |    |--C. majus (Smithers & Thornton 1981)NL07
         |    |--C. montanum (Smithers & Thornton 1981)NL07
         |    |--C. trimaculatum (Hagen 1858)NL07
         |    `--C. vitiense [=Psocus (Amphigerontia) vitiensis, Ptycta vitiensis]NL07
         |--Conothoracalis Li 1997L02 [=Conothoracailis (l. c.)L03, Conothporacalis (l. c.)L03]
         |    |--*C. longimucronatus Li 1997L02
         |    |--C. corollata Li 2002 [=C. corollatus]L03
         |    |--C. enneagonus Li 2002L02
         |    |--C. guangxiica Li 2002 [=C. gnangxiicus, C. guangxiicus]L03
         |    |--C. perbellus Li 2002L02
         |    |--C. quinarius Li 2002L02
         |    |--C. shilinicus Li 2002L02
         |    |--C. turriformis (Li 1995) [=Loensia turriformis]L02
         |    `--C. unciformis Li 2002L03
         |--SymbiopsocusM03
         |--Hybopsocus Li 2002L02
         |    `--*H. bisipolaris Li 2002L02
         |--Fashenglianus Lienhard 2003L03 [=Lativalva Li 2002 non Amsel 1956L02, LativalvaeL03]
         |    `--*F. albimaculata (Li 1990)L03, L02 [=Psocidus albimaculatusL03, *Lativalva albimaculataL03]
         |--Cephalopsocus Li 2002L02
         |    `--*C. cassideus Li 2002L02
         |--Sciadionopsocus Li 2002L02 [=ScidionopsocusL03]
         |    `--*S. fenzelianae Li 2002L03
         |--Oreopsocus Roesler 1939M03, L02
         |    |--*O. montanus (Kolbe 1884) [=Psocus montanus]L98
         |    |--O. buholzeri Lienhard 1986L02
         |    |--O. digitatus Li 2002L02
         |    |--O. leptocephalus Li 2002L02
         |    `--O. sexangularis Li 2002L02
         `--Psocomesites Roesler 1934M03, L02 [=Psocomesires (l. c.)L03]
              |--*P. continuatum [=Trichadenotecnum (Psocomesites) continuatum]L02
              |--P. bimaculatus Li 1995L03, L02 [=P. bimaculatum (l. c.)L03]
              |--P. guangzhouensis Li 2002 [=P. guangzhouense, P. guangzhouicum]L03
              |--P. laricolum Li 2002L02
              |--P. multidontatum Li 1995L02
              |--P. nudum (Thornton 1961) [=Trichadenotecnum nudum]L02
              |--P. spinosus [=Psocus spinosus]B86
              |--P. sturmi Badonnel 1986L02
              `--P. trifurcatum Li 1993L02

Atlantopsocus personatus (Hagen 1865) [=Psocus personatus; incl. At. personatus berlandi Badonnel 1944, At. personatus hibernicus Fahy 1968, At. personatus hierroensis Meinander 1973, At. personatus ibericus Baz 1988, At. personatus lanzarote Meinander 1966, At. personatus lesnei Badonnel 1944, Amphigerontia leucophlebia Navás 1916, At. personatus leucophlebius]L98

Cerastipsocus trifasciatus (Provancher 1876) [=Psocus trifasciatus; incl. Cerastis nigrofasciatus Kolbe 1883, P. speciosus Aaron 1883, P. tolteca Banks 1903]M93

Ceratostigma macrostigmatum (Li & Yang 1987)L03, L02 [=Cerastipsocus macrostigmaL02, Ceratostigmas macrostigmus (l. c.)L03]

Hyalopsocus morio (Latreille 1794)L98 [=Psocus morioL98, Copostigma (Clematostigma) morioG74, Pictopsocus morioL98, Tiliapsocus morioL98; incl. P. allaudi Lacroix 1915L98]

Longivalvus nubilus (Enderlein 1906) [=Amphigerontia nubila; incl. Psocus grandis Okamoto 1907, Psococerastis longifurcata Vishniakova 1986]M03

*Neopsocus rhenanus Kolbe 1882 [incl. Psocus heteromorphus Bertkau 1883, P. lapididetectus Lacroix 1915, Barnola lepidinus Navas 1909]L98

‘Psocus’ frontalis Harris 1869 [incl. P. striatus Walker 1853 non Zetterstedt 1840, Clematostigma striatum, Hyalopsocus striatus]M93

‘Psocus’ gregarius Walker 1853 [incl. P. gossypii Ashmead 1894, P. magnus Walker 1853, Psocus venosus Burmeister 1839 non Stephens 1836, Cerastipsocus venosus, Cerastis venosa]M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l’Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179–223.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103–215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[M03] Mockford, E. L. 2003. New species and records of Psocoptera from the Kuril Islands. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 50 (2): 191–230.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529–561.

[YL15] Yoshizawa, K., & C. Lienhard. 2015. Synonymy of Cryptopsocus Li with Trichadenotecnum Enderlein (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’: Psocidae) and description of three new species. Zootaxa 3957 (4): 480–488.

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