Male Freyanella tarandus, from OConnor (2009).

Belongs within: Astigmatina.
Contains: Eustathiidae, Freyanidae, Listrophoridae, Analgoidea, Pterolichidae.

The Psoroptidia are a group of astigmatan mites usually found as parasites or commensals on birds or mammals, most commonly in association with the feathers or hair. OConnor (2009) divided the Psoroptidia between three superfamilies, the bird-associated Pterolichoidea and Analgoidea, and the mammal-associated Sarcoptoidea. However, phylogenetic analysis by Dabert et al. (2010) indicates that the Pterolichoidea is paraphyletic to a clade containing the other two groups. Members of the ‘Pterolichoidea’ include the Syringobiidae, mostly found living in the quills of Charadriiformes and feeding on keratinaceous material (OConnor 2009).

Characters (from OConnor 2009): Body cuticle usually at least partially striate: genital papillae greatly reduced or absent; tibiae I and II with a dorsal solenidion and one (v’) or rarely no ventral setae; unguinal serae absent from all tarsi; pretarsi often enlarged, with ambulacral stalk and disc well developed, empodial claws usually reduced or incorporated into ambulacral disc as central sclerite; deutonymph absent from life cycle.

<==Psoroptidia (see below for synonymy)DW10
    |    |--PlutarchusiaO09
    |    |--PaidoplutarchusiaO09
    |    |--SyringobiaDW10
    |    |    |--S. chelopusNK94
    |    |    `--S. longipenisDW10
    |    `--PhyllochaetaDW10
    |         |--P. bouvetiDW10
    |         `--P. tenuisetaO09
    `--+--Kramerellidae [Kramerellinae]DW10
       |    |--PetitotaO09
       |    |--ParabdellorhynchusO09
       |    |--KramerellaDW10
       |    |    |--K. maculataO09
       |    |    `--K. otiDW10
       |    `--Freyanella Dubinin 1953H98
       |         |--F. alcicornus Atyeo et al. 1972H98
       |         |--F. perpapillata Atyeo et al. 1972H98
       |         |--F. plataleae (Dubinin & Dubinina 1940) [=Freyana plataleae]H98
       |         `--F. tarandus (Trouessart & Neumann 1888) [=Freyana tarandus]H98
             |  `--AnalgoideaDW10
                     |--Atyeonia bifurcataO09
                     |--Pterophagus Mégnin in Robin & Mégnin 1877H98
                     |    `--P. strictus Mégnin in Robin & Mégnin 1877H98
                     |--Falculifer Railliet 1896H98
                     |    |--F. rostratus (Buchholz 1869) (see below for synonymy)H98
                     |    `--F. spinosus (Trouessart 1898)SL71
                     `--Psittophagus Gaud & Atyeo 1996H98
                          |--P. obsoletus (Mégnin & Trouessart 1884) [=Pterolichus ornatus obsoletus]H98
                          `--P. ornatus (Mégnin & Trouessart 1884) [=Pterolichus ornatus]H98
Psoroptidia incertae sedis:
    |--Gabucinia delibataWP99
    |--Hieracolichus nisiDW10
    |--Capitolichus tetroplourusO09
    |--Aetacarus phylloproctusO09
    `--Artamacarus Gaud & Atyeo 1975H98
         `--A. diacanthurus Gaud & Atyeo 1975H98
  Caudifera [Caudiferidae]O09
    `--C. marginataO09
    |--Vexillaria intermediaO09
    `--Calaobia [Calaobiinae]O09
  Ptiloxenus [Ptiloxenidae]O09
    `--P. majorO09
    |--Mesosathes tetrasetosusO09
    `--Allosathes anepiandriusO09
  Gangolichus [Cheylabididae]O09
    `--G. prionurusO09
  Psilolichus [Ochrolichidae]O09
    `--P. brachyurusO09
  Rectijanua [Rectijanuidae]O09
    `--R. striataO09
  Thoracosathes [Thoracosathesidae]O09
    `--T. thoracosathesO09
  Ascouracaridae [Ascouracarinae]O09
    |--Orphanacarus Gaud & Atyeo 1976H98
    |    `--O. parvisetiger Dabert & Ehrnsberger 1992H98
    `--Ascouracarus Gaud & Kolebinova 1973H98
         |--A. distinctus Dabert & Ehrnsberger 1992H98
         `--A. michiganiO09
  Kiwilichus [Kiwilichidae]O09
    |--K. cryptosikyaNK94
    `--K. delosikyusO09
  Oconnoria [Oconnoriidae]O09
    `--O. inexpectataO09
  Inermodorus semaphorusNK94
  Thecarthra theca (Mégnin & Trouessart 1884) [=Pterolichus theca]T05

Falculifer rostratus (Buchholz 1869) [=Dermaleichus rostratus, Faculifer (l. c.) rostratus, Falciger rostratus]H98

Psoroptidia [Analginae, Avicolae, Freyanoidea, Gliricolae, Pilicolae, Plumicolae, Psoroptides, Psoroptoidae, Pterolichoidea, Pterophaga]DW10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[NK94] Norton, R. A., & J. B. Kethley. 1994. Ecdysial cleavage lines of acariform mites (Arachnida, Acari). Zoologica Scripta 23 (3): 175–191.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 565–657. Texas Tech University Press.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[T05] Trägårdh, I. 1905. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 1–78. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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