Psychodinae

Psychoda alternata, copyright Ivan Stankovic.
Belongs within: Psychodoidea.

The Psychodinae, moth flies, are a group of densely hairy flies whose larvae are most commonly found in moist or semi-aquatic habitats (Wagner & Ibáñez-Bernal 2009).

Characters (from Wagner & Ibáñez-Bernal 2009): Eye reniform with extension towards midline forming eye bridge above antennal insertions; eyes continuous or separated, rarely with eye bridge short and acutely pointed; flagellomeres fusiform, pyriform or nodiform.

<==Psychodinae WI-B09
|–Maruina [Maruinini] WI-B09
|    `–M. hirta WM96
|–Pericomini WI-B09
|    |–Lepidiella WI-B09
|    `–Pericoma (Clytocerus) americana WI-B09, QV81
|–Paramormiini WI-B09
|    |–Clogmia albipunctata WI-B09, WT11
|    |–Telmatoscopus mergacolis WI-B09
|    `–Paramormia [incl. Duckhousiella] WI-B09
|         |–P. furcata WI-B09
|         `–P. ustulata WI-B09
|–Mormiini WI-B09
|    |–Atrichobrunettia alternata WI-B09, CM91
|    |–Bryopharsos WI-B09
|    |–Eugenys clavellata WI-B09
|    |–Mormia O98
|    `–Brunettia [incl. Neobrunettia Bravo & Amorim 1995] WI-B09
|         `–B. dominicana WI-B09
|–Psychodini WI-B09
|    |–Trichopsychoda insulicola WI-B09, QV81
|    |–Threticus WI-B09
|    |–Feuerborniella WI-B09
|    |–Philosepedon WI-B09
|    |    |–P. helicis WM96
|    |    |–P. mauroae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
|    |    |–P. opposita WM96
|    |    `–P. quatei WM96
|    `–Psychoda WI-B09
|         |–P. alternata CM91
|         |–P. cinerea WI-B09
|         |–P. harrisi M83
|         |–P. juliae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
|         |–P. ocellaris G20
|         |–P. phalaenoides WI-B09
|         |–P. puertoricana Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
|         |–P. satchelli WM96
|         `–P. spatulata M83
`–Setomimini WI-B09
|–Nemoneura liparotes WI-B09
|–Didicrum pyramidon WI-B09
|–Desmioza WI-B09
|–Didimioza symphilia WI-B09
|–Thrysocanthus WI-B09
|–Valerianna WI-B09
|–Neoarisemus maesi WI-B09
|–Neurosystasis WI-B09
|–Armillipora selvica Quate 1996 WI-B09
|–*Australopericoma caudata [incl. A. wirthi] WI-B09
|–Balbagathis discuspis WI-B09
|–Setomima WI-B09
|–Platyplastinx WI-B09
|–Micrommatos WI-B09
|    |–M. simplex WI-B09
|    `–M. sylvaticum WI-B09
|–Caenobrunettia WI-B09
|    |–C. sarculosa WI-B09
|    `–C. subditicia WI-B09
|–Tonnoira WI-B09
|    |–T. cavernicola WI-B09
|    `–T. rapiformis WI-B09
|–Alepia WI-B09
|    |–A. diocula WI-B09
|    |–A. hirtiventris WI-B09
|    `–A. longinoi WI-B09
`–Arisemus WI-B09
|–*A. boxi WM96
|–A. amydrus WI-B09
|–A. buzbyae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
|–A. mariannae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
`–A. waidei Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96

Psychodinae incertae sedis:
Eurygarka helicis QV81
Breviscapus QV81
Neotelmatoscopus O98
Paratelmatoscopus O98
Epacretron O98
Gerobrunettia O98
Notiocharis O98
Peripsychoda O98
Ulomyia RD77
Termitomastus RD77
Termitodipteron RD77
Termitadelphos RD77
Thornburghiella marginalis BW09 [=Pericoma marginalis QV81]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flies or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WM96] Wagner, R., & E. C. Masteller. 1996. New moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and a key to species from Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 450–464.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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