Psylloidea

 Kuwayama medicaginis, copyright Salvador Vitanza.

Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Trioza, Chermes, Psyllinae, Spondyliaspinae, Ciriacreminae, Aphalarinae.

The Psylloidea, jumping plantlice or lerp insects, are a group of small plant-sucking bugs, some of which are notable agricultural pests. Nymphs commonly inhabit protective structures, such as leaf galls induced in host plants or wax secretions produced from the abdomen.

Psylloids first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic, where they are represented by the Mesozoic families Liadopsyllidae and Malmopsyllidae (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). Modern families include the Triozidae, characterised by fore wings with veins R, M and CuA arising at or near a single point. The Carsidaridae possess a vena spuria in the fore wing, continuous with M3+4 and meeting RP, and conspicuous dorsal processes on the subgenital plate in males. Homotomidae have a short vein RP in the fore wing, ending close to RA, and a pair of prominent dorsal processes on the metapostnotum (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult small. Genal processes commonly developed. Antennae 10-segmented. Three ocelli. Stylets lodged in internal crumena. Hind legs saltatorial; coxae large, fixed; trochanters condylated; saltatorial spines at apices of tibia and first tarsal segment. R, M and Cu of fore wing each usually single branched; peripheral vein present; clavus present. Proctiger well developed; circumanal wax gland ring(s) usually present in female. Sexes similar. Reproduction bisexual. Nymphs non-saltatorial; dorsoventrally flattened; head and prothorax fused. Stylets at rest looped externally at base of labium. Fore wing pad often produced anteriorly as a humeral lobe. Tibia and tarsus fused in instars I-IV; tarsus one-segmented in final instar (V); well-developed arolium usually present. Wax production common, secreted mostly from base of lanceolate setae or sectasetae on abdomen. Eggs pedunculate, with either peduncle inserted into plant tissue or entire egg embedded in plant.

<==Psylloidea [Saltipedes]
    |--LiadopsyllaK-P91 [Asientomidae, LiadopsyllidaeSP02, Lithentomidae]
    |    `--L. geinitziRJ93
    |--PhacopteronidaeYM96
    |    |--PseudophacopteronCGW91
    |    `--Epicarsa corniculataYM96
    |--Malmopsyllidae [Neopsylloididae]SP02
    |    |--Malmopsylla karatavica Bekker-Migdisova 1985RJ93
    |    `--Neopsylloides turutanovae Bekker-Migdisova 1985RJ93
    |--CalophyidaeCGW91
    |    |--Calophya dicksoniYM96
    |    `--CecidopsyllaCGW91
    |         |--C. pateraeCGW91
    |         `--C. putealisCGW91
    |--HomotomidaeYM96
    |    |--MycopsyllaCGW91
    |    |    |--M. ficiCGW91
    |    |    `--M. proximaCGW91
    |    `--SynozaYM96
    |         |--S. floccosaYM96
    |         `--S. pulchraYM96
    |--Carsidaridae [Carsidarinae]YM96
    |    |--CarsidaraH-H61
    |    |--MastigimasYM96
    |    |    |--M. ernestiiYM96
    |    |    `--M. schwarziYM96
    |    `--ParacarsidaraYM96
    |         |--P. dugesiiYM96
    |         |--P. giganteaYM96
    |         `--P. mexicanaYM96
    |--Triozidae [Triozinae]YM96
    |    |--HemitriozaH-H61
    |    |--SchedotriozaCGW91
    |    |--Aacanthocnema casuarinaeCGW91
    |    |--Leptynoptera sulfureaCGW91
    |    |--TriozaH-H61
    |    |--Trichochermes magnaYM96
    |    |--CeropsyllaH-H61
    |    |    |--C. discrepansYM96
    |    |    |--C. pulchraYM96
    |    |    `--C. sideroxyliYM96
    |    |--LeuronotaYM96
    |    |    |--L. inusitataYM96
    |    |    |--L. maculataYM96
    |    |    `--L. michoacanaYM96
    |    |--ParatriozaYM96
    |    |    |--P. cockerelliYM96
    |    |    |--P. dubiaYM96
    |    |    `--P. plummeriYM96
    |    `--KuwayamaYM96
    |         |--K. elongagenaYM96
    |         |--K. hyalinaYM96
    |         |--K. lateralisYM96
    |         |--K. medicaginisYM96
    |         |--K. mexicanaYM96
    |         |--K. oaxacensisYM96
    |         `--K. striataYM96
    `--Psyllidae [Chermidae]RD77
         |  i. s.: Petalolyma bicolorYS01
         |         EuphylluraH-H61
         |         AphalaroidaBM76
         |           |--A. inermisYM96
         |           |--A. lysilomaeYM96
         |           |--A. pithecolobiaYM96
         |           `--A. raucaYM96
         |         Bactericera rossica Horváth 1901H01
         |         CometopsyllaWEE70
         |         CreiisWEE70
         |           |--C. costatusCGW91
         |           `--C. periculosaCGW91
         |         Ameroscena mexicanaYM96
         |         Burkhardtia montanaYM96
         |         CacopsyllaYM96
         |           |--C. americanaYM96
         |           `--C. nanaYM96
         |         Caradocia delongiYM96
         |         EuceropsyllaYM96
         |           |--E. minuticonaYM96
         |           `--E. orizabensisYM96
         |         EuphalerusYM96
         |           |--E. fasciatusYM96
         |           |--E. gallicolusYM96
         |           `--E. nidifexYM96
         |         Freysuila dugesiiYM96
         |         Haplaphalara tuxtlaensisYM96
         |         KatacephalaYM96
         |           |--K. arcuataYM96
         |           |--K. cinctataYM96
         |           `--K. grandicepsYM96
         |         Limbopsylla lagunculariaeYM96
         |         MitrapsyllaYM96
         |           |--M. albalineataYM96
         |           |--M. cubanaYM96
         |           `--M. deserataYM96
         |         Neophyllura mexicanaYM96
         |         PachypsyllaYM96
         |           |--P. tropicalaYM96
         |           `--P. venustaH06
         |         PlatycoryphaYM96
         |           |--P. amabilisYM96
         |           |--P. magnifronsYM96
         |           `--P. princepsYM96
         |         Syncoptozus mexicanusYM96
         |         Tetragonocephala flavaYM96
         |         Nesiope Kirkaldy 1908K08
         |           `--*N. ornata Kirkaldy 1908K08
         |         StrophingiaP92
         |         ChermesTYM08
         |--PsyllinaeH-H61
         |--SpondyliaspinaeH-H61
         |--CiriacreminaeH-H61
         |--AphalarinaeH-H61
         `--LiviinaeH-H61
              |--DiraphiaH-H61
              `--Livia Latreille 1802L02
                   |--*L. juncorum (Latreille 1798)L02, L98 [=Psylla juncorumL02]
                   `--L. mexicanaYM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H06] Hassanin, A. 2006. Phylogeny of Arthropoda inferred from mitochondrial sequences: strategies for limiting the misleading effects of multiple changes in pattern and rates of substitution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 100–116.

[H-H61] Heslop-Harrison, G. 1961. Hemiptera (Homoptera): Psyllidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebec (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 487–532. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L98] Latreille, P. A. 1798. Mémoire sur une nouvelle espèce de psylle, Kermes, L. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (15): 113.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YM96] Yang, M.-M., & D. R. Miller. 1996. Checklist of the psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 122–125.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

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