Pterioida

 Reconstruction of Rhombopteria mira, from Stanley (1972).

Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Ambonychioidea, Inoceramus, Platyceramus, Mytiloides, Pterineidae, Pinnidae, Pterioidea, Ostreoidea, Plicatuloidea.

The Pterioida are a clade of three major lineages of living bivalves, the Pinnidae, Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, supported as a monophylum by molecular analyses (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Members of the clade tend to have elongate shells, equivalve in Pinnidae but inaequivalve in Pterioidea and Ostreoidea, attached to their substrate by a byssus in Pinnidae and Pterioidea and cemented in Ostreoidea. It is possible that the equivalve Pinnidae are secondarily so as they have been suggested to be descended from the inaequivalve Palaeozoic Pterineidae (Carter 2004).

Pterioids and stem pinnids have a duplivincular ligament with multiple low-angle ligament groves in the shell each anchoring a separate calcified fibrous sublayer but modern pinnids have reduced the ligament to a single sublayer. The Devonian Palaeopinna is morphologically intermediate between Pterineidae and Pinnidae but its hinge and ligament structure remains unknown (Carter 2004). This genus had an elongate shell ornamented with radial costellae, with small, terminal beaks, a truncate anterior margin and broad, posterior region bearing acute, compressed wing.

The early Palaeozoic Rhombopteria had a rhomboidal, near-equivalve shell without a distinct byssal notch. This genus has been suggested as an ancestor of both the remaining Pterioida and the related Pectinida though it overlapped in time with some members of the Pterineidae. Other fossil pterioids include the Inoceramidae, a Late Permian and Mesozoic group with concentrically lamellose or plicate shells that occasionally grew to enormous size. The ligament area typically bore numerous regularly arranged ligament pits with curved sides. The Jurassic Retroceramus resembled the Inoceramidae but its equivalve shell contrasts with the inequivalve shells of many inoceramids. The Permian Atomodesma, another inoceramid-like genus, had an inequivalve shell with a duplivincular ligament. The early to middle Permian Alatoconchidae had strongly dorsoventrally compressed shells that also sometimes reached gigantic sizes, up to a metre in length.

<==Pterioida [Pteriida]
    |--RhombopteriaSB93 [RhombopteriidaeC04]
    |    |--R. mira (Barrande 1881)SB93
    |    `--R. obliqua Sherrard 1959F71
    `--+--PterineidaeC04
       |--+--Palaeopinna Hall 1883C04
       |  `--PinnidaeC04
       `--+--PterioideaC04
          `--OstreinaBRW98
               |--OstreoideaC04
               `--PlicatuloideaBRW98
Pterioida incertae sedis:
  AmbonychioideaC04
  Liebea [Kolymiidae]JB12
    |--L. hausmanniG31
    |--L. indicaG31
    `--L. sinensisG31
  AtomodesmidaeSB93
    |--Atomodesma Beyrich 1864W60
    |    |--A. mitchelli (M’Coy 1847) [=Inoceramus mitchelli, Aphanaia mitchelli]F71
    |    `--A. variabile Wanner 1922SB93
    `--AphanaiaSB93
         |--A. giganteaF71
         `--A. tivertonensis Waterhouse 1979SB93
  InoceramidaeSB93
    |--InoceramusB59
    |--BirostrinaK79
    |--Magadiceramus subquadratusK79
    |--PlatyceramusK79
    |--Permoceramus brownei Waterhouse 1970SB93
    |--TenuipteriaK79
    |    |--T. argentea (Conrad 1858)SB93
    |    |--T. fibrosusK79
    |    `--T. tegulatusK79
    |--CladoceramusK79
    |    |--C. cordiformisK79
    |    |--C. japonicusK79
    |    `--C. undulatoplicatusK79
    |--SphenoceramusK79
    |    |--S. linguaK79
    |    |--S. lobatusK79
    |    |--S. pachtiK79
    |    `--S. steenstrupiK79
    `--MytiloidesK79
  AlatoconchidaeSB93
    |--ShikamaiaSB93
    |    |--S. (Alatoconcha) vampyra (Termier et al. 1973)SB93
    |    `--S. (Tanchintongia) perakensis (Runnegar & Gobbett 1975)SB93
    `--SaikraconchaSB93
         |--S. (Dereconcha) kamparensis Yancey & Boyd 1983SB93
         |--S. ogulineci (Kochansky-Devidé 1978)SB93
         `--S. tunisiensis Yancey & Boyd 1983SB93
  Eurydesma Morris 1845W60 [EurydesmidaeSB93]
    |--E. alisulcatum Waterhouse 1987SB93
    |--E. cordatum (see below for synonymy)F71
    |    |--E. c. cordatumSB93
    |    `--E. c. truncatum Waterhouse 1987SB93
    |--E. hobartenseF71
    `--E. playfordiJB12
  PergamidiidaeSB93
    |--Oretia coxi Marwick 1953SB93
    |--Semuridia dorsetensis (Cox 1926)SB93
    |--Pergamidea Bittner 1891W60
    |    `--P. eumena [incl. P. attalea Bittner 1891]W60
    `--Manticula Waterhouse 1960SB93, W60 [=Maoria Wilckens 1927 non Castelnau 1867W60]
         `--‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 (see below for synonymy)W60
  Monopteria Meek & Worthen 1866W77 [MonopteriidaeSB93]
    |--M. longaG31
    |--M. longispina Meek & Worthen 1866SB93 [=Gervillia longispinaW77]
    `--M. marian White 1874W77
  Umburra [Umburridae]SB93
    `--U. cinefacta Johnston 1991SB93
  Kochia [Kochiidae]SB93
    |--K. alata Maurer 1902SB93
    `--K. capuliformis (Koch 1881)SB93
  CassianellidaeSB93
    |--Cassianella crassispinosus Chronic 1949SB93
    `--SeptihoernesiaSB93
         |--S. johannisaustriae (Klipstein 1845)SB93
         `--S. subglobosaSB93
  Datta [Dattidae]SB93
    `--D. oscillaris Healey 1908SB83
  Retroceramus [Retroceramidae]SB93
    |--R. everesti (Oppel 1865)SB93
    |--R. foliiormis Pokhialainen 1969SB93
    |--R. levis Koskelkina 1969SB93
    |--R. marwickiE01
    `--R. subtilisSB93

Eurydesma cordatum [incl. E. elliptica Dana 1849, E. globosa Dana 1849, E. cordatum var. ovale Etheridge & Dun 1910, E. cordatum var. sacculum Dana 1849]F71

‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 [incl. Myt. mirabilis Trechmann 1918 non Gervillea mirabilis Lepsius 1878, Myt. problematicus Zittel 1864 non Schlotheim 1820, *Manticula problematica, Myalina (*Maoria) problematica]W60

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B59] Boreham, A. U. E. 1959. Cretaceous fossils from the Chatham Islands. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 119–125.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular ligament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235–240.

[E01] Eagle, M. K. 2001. A new species of Cottreauaster (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the Middle Jurassic of New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 93–100.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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