Ptinidae

Tricorynus herbarius, from PaDIL.

Belongs within: Bostrichoidea.
Contains: Xyletinini, Prothecini, Dorcatomini, Sphaericini, Ptinus, Ectrephini, Anobiini.

The Ptinidae are a cosmopolitan group of beetles including feeders on dried animal or plant matter, and borers in woody plants. Historically, many species have been included in a family Anobiidae, distinct from the Ptinidae sensu stricto (now Ptininae), but the two families are now regarded as synonymous.

Characters (from Philips 2002, as Anobiidae): Shape strongly convex, elongate and cylindrical to oval or globular; length 1.1 to 9.0 mm; color tan, brown or piceous, some with lighter patches of setae or scales in various patterns; vestiture fine, mostly recumbent or erect but some with both present, in distinct tufts in some, occasionally appearing absent. Head deflexed, inserted into prothorax, in some covered by pronotum; surface smooth, punctate, or rugose. Antennae mostly with 11 antennomeres, occasionally with 10, rarely three, with 1–2 segmented club in some, more frequently with last three elongate, especially in male; either filiform, serrate, pectinate, or rarely flabellate; inserted on frons in front of eyes, narrowly to widely separated at base. Labrum small, transverse; mandibles small, curved, apices acute, bidentate apically or medially (second tooth rarely absent); maxillary palp with four palpomeres, these short and slender, occasionally with apical palpomere expanded and truncate; gula distinct, gular sutures distinct and separate, mentum mostly quadrate; labial palp with three palpomeres, these small and slender, occasionally truncate or emarginate. Eyes lateral, small to large, bulging or flat, variously rounded, occasionally reduced. Pronotum as wide or wider than head, broadly oval to subquadrate, borders mostly completely margined laterally, margin may be present only at base or completely absent; surface smooth, punctate, or rugose; pleural region broad; prosternum very short, occasionally deeply excavated with mesosternum in front for head; procoxal cavities externally open, internally closed. Mesosternum short; mesocoxae moderately separated to separated by more than one coxal width, laterally coxae closed by sternum. Metasternum broad, convex. Elytra entire, rarely connate, striae punctate or absent, intervals smooth, punctate, or rugose, epipleural fold variable, mostly obscure. Scutellum triangular, small, hidden in some. Wing venation (if wings present) frequently reduced. Radius anterior (RA+) divided into two branches beyond or before middle of wing, but not extending and not forming a radial cell. Some with one or two cross-veins (r-r) from distal end of radius. Median spur in some nearly reaching wing margin. Proximal to media posterior (MP1+2) veins absent or up to four main branches present. AP3 absent although pigmentation occasionally visible at wing base. Wedge cell and/or jugal lobe present in some. Legs short to long, with trochantins partially exposed to completely hidden on fore and middle legs, procoxae small, globular to conical, most contiguous; mesocoxae small, subconical, nearly contiguous; hind coxae small, nearly contiguous, transverse, can be completely fused to metasternum, most excavated to various degrees for reception of femora; trochanters short to very long, interstitial on all legs, squarely attached to bases of femora; femora slender to swollen; tibiae slender, some spinose, spurs obscure; tarsal formula 5-5-5, tarsomeres slender in some, one to four decreasing in length; claws simple, small. Abdomen usually with five ventrites, strongly reduced in some, sutures entire or in some nearly obsolete, especially basally and at middle; 2 to 3 connate basally although rarely all five appearing fused or second and third fused, sculpture variable. Male genitalia trilobed; median lobe symmetrical or asymmetrical, curved, tubular, in some flattened apically or expanded, strongly curved at base dorsally where it articulates with base of parameres; parameres asymmetrical, or symmetrical, elongate; basal piece (pars basalis) forming cap over base of parameres or small piece at paramere base ventrally. Female genitalia with valvifers large, articulating closely with coxite; coxite large, partly membranous, with two deep folds; styli large; proctiger small. Larvae C-shaped; up to 10 mm in length; vestiture may be composed of many short to long setae, scattered over body; color white or nearly so. Head exserted or nearly so, rounded and hypognathous, stemmata absent or one per side. Antennae with one or two segments, small, or vestigial. Fronto-clypeal suture distinct, labrum free; mandibles short, stout, uni- or bidentate, with irregular cutting edges; mola, retinaculum, or protheca absent, subbasal pseudomola rarely present; maxilla with galea and lacinia; distinct cardo, stipes, and three or four segmented palpi; galea setiferous or spiny; lacinia small or absent, acute; labium with ligula and two-segmented palpi; hypopharyngeal sclerome absent or rarely present; hypostomal rods absent; ventral epicranial ridges absent; one pair of ocelli or ocelli absent. Thorax with five-segmented legs (rarely absent), each with two or more claw-like apical tarsunguli. Abdomen ten-segmented, ninth and tenth may be greatly reduced; segments in some with two or three variable dorsal plicae; mostly with rows of scattered asperites that are curved, straight, or hooked. Spiracles annular or annular-uniforous, located on prothorax and abdominal segments one to eight; crescent or U-shaped sclerome present around cephalic end of longitudinal anal slit; urogomphi absent.

<==Ptinidae [Anobiidae, Ectrephidae, Gnostidae, Ptiniores]
|--DryophilinaeP02
| |--DryophiliniM85
| | |--DryophilusP92
| | `--Dryophilodes insignisM85
| `--Ptilineurus Reitter 1901 [Ptilineurini]P02
| `--P. marmoratus (Reitter 1877)P02
|--Ptilinus Mueller 1764 [Ptilininae, Ptilinini]P02
| |--P. fuscusF02
| |--P. pectinicornisL02
| `--P. ruficornisP02
|--XyletininaeB14
| |--XyletininiP02
| `--LasioderminiP02
| |--Lasioderma Stephens 1835 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | `--L. serricorne (Fabricius 1792) (see below for synonymy)FS90
| `--Megorama Fall 1905P02
| `--M. ingensP02
|--Eucradinae [Hedobiinae]P02
| |--Eucrada LeConte 1861P02
| | `--E. humeralisP02
| `--HedobiiniP02
| |--Hedobia Dejean 1821P02
| | `--H. granosaP02
| `--Neohedobia Fisher 1919P02
| `--N. texana Fisher 1919P02
|--Mesocoelopodinae [Tricoryninae]P02
| | i. s.: Neosothes White 1967P02
| |--Mesocoelopus Jacquelin du Val 1860 [Mesocoelopini]P02
| | `--M. collaris Mulsant & Rey 1864P02
| `--TricoryniniP02
| |--Cryptorama Fall 1905 [=Crytorama (l. c.); incl. Peridorcatoma Lepesme 1947]P02
| `--Tricorynus Waterhouse 1849 (see below for synonymy)P02
| |--‘Cathorama’ bibliothecarum Poey 1853FS90
| |--T. estriatusP02
| |--T. herbariusP02
| |--T. rotundusP02
| |--‘Cathorama’ sallei Guér. 1851FS90
| `--T. similisP02
|--ErnobiinaeB14
| |--OzognathiniP02
| | |--Xarifa Fall 1905P02
| | |--Ozognathus LeConte 1861 [incl. Durangoum Pic 1903, Micranobium Gorham 1883, Microanobium (l. c.)]P02
| | | `--O. cornutus (LeConte 1859)B14
| | `--Microzogus Fall 1905P02
| | `--M. insolens Fall 1905P02
| |--XestobiiniP02
| | |--Utobium Fall 1905P02
| | | `--U. elegansP02
| | `--Xestobium Motschulsky 1845 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | |--X. elegansB14
| | `--X. rufovillosum (de Geer 1774)B14 [incl. X. tessellatumRD77]
| `--ErnobiiniP02
| |--Episernus Thomson 1863 [incl. Amphibolus Mulsant & Rey 1863 non Klug 1830, Claudius Des Gozis 1882]P02
| |--Paralobium Fall 1905P02
| | `--P. mundum Fall 1905P02
| `--Ernobius Thomson 1859 (see below for synonymy)P02
| |--E. abietisS00
| |--E. granulatusP02
| `--E. mollisLB91
|--DorcatominaeB14
| |--ProtheciniP02
| |--Petalium LeConte 1861 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | `--P. bistriatumP02
| |--CryptoramorphiniP02
| | |--Pseudodorcatoma Pic 1905P02
| | `--Cryptoramorphus White 1966 [=Crytoramorphus (l. c.)]P02
| | `--C. floridanus White 1966P02
| |--CalymmaderiniP02
| | |--Calytheca White 1973P02
| | | `--C. elongata White 1973P02
| | `--Calymmaderus Solier 1849 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | |--C. bahiensisP02
| | |--C. incisusLB91
| | |--C. nitidusP02
| | `--C. punculatusP02
| `--DorcatominiP02
|--Ptininae [Gibbiinae]MW15
| | i. s.: Gibbium Scopoli 1777 [incl. Scotias Czempinski 1778]P02
| | |--G. aequinoctiale Boieldieu 1854B14
| | |--G. psylloides (Czempinski 1778)P02
| | `--G. scotias [=Ptinus scotias]G89
| | Mezium Curtis 1828P02
| | |--M. affine Boieldieu 1856P02
| | `--M. americanum Laporte 1935P02
| | Gnostus Westwood 1855P02
| | `--G. floridanus Blatchley 1930P02
| | Niptinus Fall 1905P02
| | Pseudeurostus Heyden 1906 [incl. Eurostus Mulsant & Rey 1868 non Dallas 1851]P02
| | |--P. hilleri (Reitter 1877)P02
| | `--P. kelleri Brown 1959P02
| | Prosternoptinus Bellé 1985P02
| | Tipnus Thomson 1863 [incl. Epailaeus Pic 1912, Epauloecus Mulsant & Rey 1868]P02
| | `--T. unicolor Piller & Mitterpacher 1882P02
| |--SphaericiniLB91
| |--PtininiM85
| | |--PtinusB98
| | |--Niptus Boieldieu 1856M85, P02
| | | `--N. hololeucusB70
| | `--Trigonogenius Solier 1849M85, P02
| | `--T. globulusP02
| `--EctrephiniM85
`--AnobiinaeMW15
| i. s.: MirosternusO94
| XyletobiusO94
| Ptilinobium White 1976P02
| `--P. aberrans White 1976P02
|--AnobiiniF38
|--Colposternus Fall 1905 [Colposternini]P02
| `--C. tenuilineatus (Horn 1894)P02
|--GastralliniP02
| |--Gastrallus Jacquelin du Val 1860 [=Gastragallus (l. c.)]P02
| | `--G. marginipennisP02
| `--Falsogastrallus Pic 1914 [incl. Gastrallomimum Pic 1939, Neogastrallus Fisher 1938]F38
| `--F. librinocens (Fisher 1938)P02 [=*Neogastrallus librinocensF38]
|--StegobiiniP02
| |--Stegobium Motschulsky 1860 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | `--S. paniceum (Linnaeus 1758)P02 [=Dermestes paniceusP02, Sitodrepa paniceaR13]
| `--Oligomerus Redtenbacher 1849 [incl. Oligomerinus Portevin 1931]P02
| |--O. obtususP02
| `--O. sericansP02
|--NicobiiniP02
| |--Nicobium LeConte 1861 [incl. Neobium Mulsant & Rey 1864]P02
| | `--N. castaneum (Olivier 1790)P02
| |--Anobiopsis Fall 1905P02
| | `--A. sericans Fall 1905P02
| `--Trichodesma LeConte 1861 non Brown 1810 (ICBN) [incl. Microtrichodesma Pic 1931, Ptinodes LeConte 1861]P02
| `--T. gibbosaP02
|--HadrobregminiP02
| |--Desmatogaster Knutson 1963P02
| | `--D. subconnata (Fall 1920)P02
| |--Priobium Motschulsky 1845 (see below for synonymy)P02
| | `--P. sericeusP02
| `--Hadrobregmus Thomson 1859 (see below for synonymy)P02
| |--H. australiensisM85
| |--H. notatusP02
| `--H. quadrulusP02
`--EuceratoceriniP02
|--Actenobius Fall 1905 [=Actenobium (l. c.)]P02
| `--A. pleuralis (Casey 1898)P02
|--Ctenobium LeConte 1865P02
| `--C. antennatum LeConte 1865P02
|--Xeranobium Fall 1905P02
| `--X. laticepsP02
`--Euceratocerus LeConte 1874P02
|--E. gibbifronsP02
`--E. horniiP02

Ptinidae incertae sedis:
DiphobiaB70
|--D. familiaris Olliff 1886M86
`--D. longicornis Lea 1919L19
Epitelus contumax Newm. 1842M86
Paussoptinus laticornisB70
Hexaplocotes sulcifronsB70
CrichtoniaP92
MesothesP92
LachnoniptusP02
ColeoaethesP02
FabrasiaP02
Clada posticum (Gahan 1900) [=Paranobium posticum]JG19
XyletiliniM85
|--Pronus medianusM85
|--Secretipes xanthorrhoeaeM85
`--Deltocryptus punctiventrisM85

Calymmaderus Solier 1849 [=Calymaderus (l. c.), Calymmoderus (l. c.), Colymmaderus (l. c.); incl. Byrrhocerus Brèthes 1919, Eupactidius Espanol 1969, Eupactus LeConte 1861, Eutheca Kiesenwetter 1877, Lioolius Gorham 1883, Nevermannia Fisher 1927 non Enderlein 1921, Nevermannus Fisher 1927, Thaptor Gorham 1883, Thapter (l. c.)]P02

Ernobius Thomson 1859 [incl. Conophoribium Chevrolat 1861, Conopheribium (l. c.), Conoploribium (l. c.), Liozoum Mulsant & Rey 1863, Liozum (l. c.), Liozuom (l. c.), Philoxylon LeConte 1862]P02

Hadrobregmus Thomson 1859 [=Habrobregmus (l. c.), Hadrobegmus (l. c.), Hadrobresmus (l. c.), Hadrobrogmus (l. c.); incl. Allobregmus Espanol 1970, Coelostethus LeConte 1861, Dendrobium Mulsant & Rey 1864 non Swartz 1799 (ICBN), Megabregmus Espanol 1970]P02

Lasioderma Stephens 1835 [=Ladioderma (l. c.), Lasiderma (l. c.), Lassioderna (l. c.), Tasioderma (l. c.); incl. Hypora Mulsant & Rey 1864, Pseudochina Jacquelin du Val 1860, Pseudochinus (l. c.)]P02

Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius 1792) [incl. L. flavescens, L. ligniperda, L. rufescens Sturm 1826, L. testaceum]FS90

Petalium LeConte 1861 [incl. Fossanobium Pic 1903, Metapetalium Espanol 1970, Rhadine Baudi di Selve 1873 non LeConte 1848, Radine (l. c.), Rahdine (l. c.), Synanobium Schilsky 1898; Petaliini]P02

Priobium Motschulsky 1845 [=Prioblum (l. c.); incl. Trypopitys Redtenbacher 1849, Tripopithys (l. c.), Tripopitys (l. c.), Trpopitys (l. c.), Trypopithys (l. c.)]P02

Stegobium Motschulsky 1860 [incl. Artobium Mulsant & Rey 1864, Autobium (l. c.), Sitodrepa Thomson 1863, Litropeda (l. c.), Sidrotepa (l. c.), Sitoprepa (l. c.)]P02

Tricorynus Waterhouse 1849 [incl. Cathorama Gemminger & Harold 1869, Catorama Guérin-Méneville 1850, Hemiptychus LeConte 1865, Hemitychus (l. c.), Xylotheca Reitter 1897]P02

Xestobium Motschulsky 1845 [=Xesfobium (l. c.), Zestobium (l. c.); incl. Cnecus Thomson 1859, Hyperisus Mulsant & Rey 1863, Hyerisus (l. c.), Hyperius (l. c.)]P02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B98] Bellés, X. 1998. A new subgenus and two new species of Sphaericus (Coleoptera: Ptinidae) from Western Australia. European Journal of Entomology 95: 263–268.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[F02] Falin, Z. H. 2002. Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold 1870 (1853). In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 431–444. CRC Press.

[F38] Fisher, W. S. 1938. A new anobiid beetle (Coleop: Anobiidae) injurious to books. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (2): 43–44.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[M85] Matthews, E. G. 1985. A Guide to the Genera of Beetles of South Australia. Part 4. Polyphaga: Byrrhoidea, Buprestoidea, Dryopoidea, Elateroidea, Cantharoidea, Derodontoidea, and Bostrichoidea. South Australian Museum: Adelaide.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P02] Philips, T. K. 2002. Anobiidae Fleming 1821. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 245–260. CRC Press.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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