Ptychoparioidea

Holotype of Proteuloma monile monile, from Callaway (1877).

Belongs within: Libristoma.
Contains: Eoshengia, Wuhuiinae, Koldinioidia, Solenopleuropsinae.

The Ptychoparioidea are a group of trilobites known from the Lower Cambrian to the Lower Ordovician. The surface of the exoskeleton is granulate or tuberculate in Solenopleuridae but generally smooth in Ptychopariidae and Eulomidae (Harrington et al. 1959). The Shumardiidae are a Cambrian and Ordovician family of minute trilobites.

The Lisaniidae are a group of small trilobites known from the upper Middle Cambrian of Eurasia (Hong et al. 2003).

Cyclolorenzella is a genus of trilobites known from the upper Middle Cambrian of Asia. Members of this genus have a convex preglabellar boss and small palpebral lobes at glabellar mid-length (Hong et al. 2003).

Characters (from Harrington et al. 1959, as Ptychopariacea): Exoskeleton elongate oval, opisthoparian, with relatively large thorax and small pygidium. Cephalon semicircular, with well-defined border, glabella tapering forward, generally with three or four pairs of more or less distinct lateral glabellar furrows, with rounded or truncate front separated from border by a short to relatively long, moderately convex to flat (or rarely concave) preglabellar field; facial sutures converging or diverging in front of eyes, eye ridges commonly present; librigenae commonly with genal spines of short to medium length. Thorax composed of 12 to 17 segments; axis moderately convex, sharply defined; pleurae nearly flat, with distinct grooves. Pygidium with few segments, lacking border. Surface generally smooth.

<==Ptychoparioidea [Conocoryphacea, Ptychopariacea, Solenopleuracea]
    |  i. s.: HartshilliaF90
    |         MeneviellaF90
    |--ModociaF90 [MarjmiidaeRC93]
    |--OnchonotopsidaeRC93
    |--PenarosaF90 [NepeiidaeRC93]
    |    `--P. netentaF90
    |--CrepicephalidaeRC93
    |--LonchocephalidaeRC93
    |    |--Welleraspis swartziF90
    |    `--Calymenidius Rasetti 1944F90
    |--CedariaF90 [CedariidaeRC93]
    |--Norwoodiidae [Norwoodiacea]RC93
    |--MenomoniidaeRC93
    |    |--HardyoidesF90
    |    `--BolaspidellaF90
    |--BolaspididaeRC93
    |--PapyriaspisF90 [PapyriaspididaeRC93]
    |    `--P. lanceolaF90
    |--EmmrichellidaeRC93
    |--TengfengiidaeRC93
    |--InouyiidaeRC93
    |--WuaniidaeRC93
    |--LorenzellidaeRC93
    |--ProasaphiscidaeRC93
    |--IgnotogregatidaeRC93
    |--HolanshaniidaeRC93
    |--MapaniidaeRC93
    |--CoosellaSS84 [CoosellidaeRC93]
    |    `--C. altaica Ivshin in Khalfin 1960SS84
    |--PtychopariidaeF90
    |    |--Ptychoparia Corda 1847W77
    |    |    |--P. howchini Etheridge 1898F71
    |    |    |--P. kingii (Meek 1870) [=Conocoryphe (Conocephalites) kingii]W77
    |    |    `--P. striataFO99
    |    |--CrassifimbraF90
    |    `--AsthenopsisF90
    |--LisaniidaeRC93
    |    |--Redlichaspis Kobayashi 1935 [=Lisaniella Chang 1963]HLC03
    |    |--Shengia Xiang in Egorova et al. 1963HLC03
    |    |--Platylisania Zhang & Jell 1987HLC03
    |    |--EoshengiaHLC03
    |    `--Lisania Walcott 1911 [incl. Aojia Kobayashi 1935]HLC03
    |         `--L. conica Kobayashi 1962SS84
    |--AsaphiscidaeRC93
    |    |--Bynumia leptogaster Raymond 1937SS84
    |    |--Asaphiscus Meek 1872W77
    |    |    `--A. wheeleri (Meek 1872) [=Bathyurellus (Asaphiscus) wheeleri]W77
    |    |--BlountiaS80
    |    |    |--B. anser Walcott 1916SS84
    |    |    |--B. assimilis Resser 1938SS84
    |    |    `--B. crassa Resser 1938SS84
    |    `--BlainiaF90
    |--KomaspididaeRC93
    |    |--KomaspisRC93
    |    |    |--K. convexus Kobayashi 1935RC93
    |    |    `--K. typa Kobayashi 1935RC93
    |    `--IrvingellaRC93
    |         |--I. major Ulrich & Resser in Walcott 1924RC93
    |         |--I. nuneatonensis (Sharman 1886)RC93
    |         |--I. taitzuhoensisS80
    |         `--I. tropicaS80
    |--DokimocephalidaeRC93
    |    |--WuhuiinaeS80
    |    `--DokimocephalinaeS80
    |         |--Acrocephalites Wallerius 1895S80
    |         |--Burnetiella Lochman 1958 [=Burnetia Walcott 1924 (preocc.)]S80
    |         |--Dokimocephalus Walcott 1924S80
    |         |--Iddingsia Walcott 1924S80
    |         |--Apachia Frederickson 1949S80
    |         |--Kindbladia Frederickson 1948S80
    |         |--Pseudosaratogia Wilson 1951S80
    |         `--Elkia Walcott 1924S80
    |              `--E. nasuta [incl. Parabriscoia dolichorachis Kobayashi 1935]S80
    |--Kingstoniidae [Shumardiidae]RC93
    |    |--Hospes Stubblefield 1927SS84
    |    |--IdiomesusS80
    |    |--ShumardopsS80
    |    |--Eoshumardia Hupé 1953SS84
    |    |--Leioshumardia Whittington 1965SS84
    |    |--KoldinioidiaSS84
    |    |--Kingstonia Walcott 1924 [Kingstoniinae]SS84
    |    |    |--K. inflata Resser 1938SS84
    |    |    `--K. walcotti Resser 1938SS84
    |    `--ShumardiaFO99
    |         |--S. crossiFO99
    |         `--S. pusillinaP68
    |--Conocoryphidae [Conocoryphinae]RC93
    |    |--Periommella Resser 1938 [Periommellinae]SS84
    |    |--Ctenocephalus Hawle & Corda 1847SS84
    |    |    |--*C. (Ctenocephalus) coronatus (Barrande 1852) [=Conocephalites coronatus, Conocephalus coronatus]SS84
    |    |    `--C. (Hartella Matthew 1885)SS84
    |    |         |--C. (*H.) matthewi (Hartt in Dawson 1868) [=Conocephalites matthewi]SS84
    |    |         `--C. (H.) antiquus Thoral 1946SS84
    |    `--Conocoryphe Hawle & Corda 1847SS84
    |         |--C. (Conocoryphe) [incl. Couloumania Thoral 1946]SS84
    |         |    |--*C. (C.) sulzeri (Schlotheim 1823) [=Trilobites sulzeri]SS84
    |         |    `--C. (C.) brevifrons (Thoral 1946)SS84
    |         `--C. (Parabailiella Thoral 1946)SS84
    |              |--C. (*P.) languedocensis (Thoral 1946) [=*Parabailiella languedocensis]SS84
    |              `--C. (P.) aequalis (Linnarsson 1883) [=Bailiella aequalis]SS84
    |--SolenopleuridaeF05
    |    |  i. s.: Solenopleurina Růžička 1938F05
    |    |         Braintreella Wheeler 1942F05
    |    |           `--B. rogersi (Walcott 1884)F05
    |    |         Brunswickia Howell 1937F05
    |    |           `--B. robbii (Hartt in Dawson 1868)F05
    |    |         Parasolenopleura Westergård 1953 [incl. Atopiaspis Geyer 1998]F05
    |    |           |--*P. aculeata (Angelin 1851) [=Calymene aculeata]F05
    |    |           |--P. gregaria (Billings 1865) (see below for synonymy)F05
    |    |           |--P. ouangondiana (Hartt in Dawson 1868)F05
    |    |           |--P. tenera (Hartt in Dawson 1868) [=Liostracus tener]F05
    |    |           `--‘Atopiaspis’ tikasraynensis Geyer 1998F05
    |    |         Rimouskia Resser 1938SS84
    |    |--SolenopleuropsinaeSS84
    |    `--SolenopleurinaeSS84
    |         |--SolenopleuraF05
    |         |    |--*S. holometopa (Angelin 1851) [=Calymene holometopa]F05
    |         |    |--S. brachymetopaMB-M99
    |         |    `--‘Calymene’ canaliculata Angelin 1851F05
    |         `--Jincella Šnajdr 1957SS84
    |              |--*J. prantli (Růžička 1944) [=Solenopleura prantli]SS84
    |              `--J. brachymetopaP79
    |--Cyclolorenzella Kobayashi 1960HLC03 [DiceratocephalidaeRC93]
    |    |--*C. quadrata (Kobayashi 1935) [=Lorenzella quadrata]HLC03
    |    |--C. acalle (Walcott 1905)HLC03
    |    |--C. caijiapingensis Yang 1978HLC03
    |    |--C. convexa (Resser & Endo 1937)HLC03
    |    |--C. hebeiensis Wittke & Zhu in Zhu & Wittke 1989HLC03
    |    |    |--C. h. hebeiensisHLC03
    |    |    `--C. h. tangshanensis Wittke & Zhu in Zhu & Wittke 1989HLC03
    |    |--C. humilis Zhang in Qiu et al. 1983HLC03
    |    |--C. kushanensis (Chu 1959)HLC03
    |    |--C. latisulcata Zhang in Qiu et al. 1983HLC03
    |    |--C. longispinosa Wittke & Zhu in Zhu & Wittke 1989HLC03
    |    |--C. parabola (Lu 1957)HLC03
    |    |--C. paraconvexa Yang 1978HLC03
    |    |--C. pustulosa (Chu 1959)HLC03
    |    |--C. regularis (Walcott 1906)HLC03
    |    |--C. subcylindrica (Chu 1959)HLC03
    |    |--C. tonkinenensis (Mansuy 1916)HLC03
    |    |--C. tuma Yang 1978HLC03
    |    |--C. uniforma Wittke & Zhu in Zhu & Wittke 1989HLC03
    |    `--C. yentaiensis (Chu 1959)HLC03
    `--Eulomidae [Eulomatidae, Eulominae]S80
         |--Dolgeuloma Rosova 1963S80
         |--Pseudoacrocephalites Maximova 1962S80
         |--Lopeuloma Rosova 1968S80
         |--Loparella Rosova 1968S80
         |--Pareuloma Rasetti 1954SS84
         |--Bilacunaspis Petrunina 1973SS84
         |--Lateuloma Dean 1973SS84
         |--Probilacunaspis Ergaliev 1980SS84
         |--Eulomina Růžička 1926SS84
         |--Eulomella Kobayashi 1955SS84
         |--PesaiaSS84
         |--OlentellaSS84
         |--KujandaspisSS84
         |--Ketyna karatauensisSS84
         |--Euloma Angelin 1854S80
         |    `--E. laeveSS84
         |--Plecteuloma Shergold 1975S80
         |    `--*P. strix (Shergold 1975) [=Euloma (Plecteuloma) strix]S80
         |--Duplora Shergold 1972S80
         |    `--D. clara Shergold 1972S80
         |--Iveria Shergold 1980S80
         |    `--*I. iverensis Shergold 1980S80
         |--Taenicephalites Rasetti 1961SS84, S80
         |    |--*T. macrops Rasetti 1961S80
         |    `--T. plerus Shergold 1980S80
         `--Proteuloma Sdzuy 1955S80
              |--*P. geinitzi (Barrande 1868) (see below for synonymy)SS84
              |--P. debila Ergaliev 1980SS84
              |--P. limata [=Euloma (Proteuloma) limata]P68
              |--P. monileSS84
              |    |--P. m. monileSS84
              |    `--P. m. praemonileSS84
              `--P. primordiale (Westergård 1909) [=Euloma primordiale]SS84

Parasolenopleura gregaria (Billings 1865) [=Bathyurus gregarius; incl. Solenopleura cristata Linnarsson 1877, Parasolenopleura cristata, P. lemdadensis Geyer 1998]F05

*Proteuloma geinitzi (Barrande 1868) [=Conocephalites geinitzi, Euloma (Proteuloma) geinitzi, Pareuloma (Pr.) geinitzi]SS84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F05] Fletcher, T. P. 2005. Holaspid variation in the solenopleurid trilobite Parasolenopleura gregaria (Billings, 1865) from the Cambrian of Newfoundland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1075–1089.

[F90] Fortey, R. A. 1990. Ontogeny, hypostome attachment and trilobite classification. Palaeontology 33 (3): 529–576.

[FO99] Fortey, R. A., & R. M. Owens. 1999. Feeding habits in trilobites. Palaeontology 42 (3): 429–465.

[HLC03] Hong, P. S., J. G. Lee & D. K. Choi. 2003. Trilobites from the Lejopyge armata zone (upper Middle Cambrian) of the Machari Formation, Yongwol Group, Korea. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 895–907.

[MB-M99] Malinky, J. M., & V. Berg-Madsen. 1999. A revision of Holm’s Early and early Mid Cambrian hyoliths of Sweden. Palaeontology 42: 25–65.

[P79] Palmer, A. R. 1979. Cambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A119–A135. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P68] Petrunina, Z. E. 1968. O biostratigraphičeskom rasčlenenii Tremadoka zapadnoj časti Saâno-Altajskoj Gornoj Oblasti. In: G. A. Selâtickij, I. P. Maksimov, Û. K. Mironov, I. M. Mârkov, N. G. Rožok, M. G. Rusakov, Û. D. Skobelev, L. D. Staroverov and A. N. Suharina (eds) Novye Dannye po Geologii i Poleznym Iskopaemym Zapadnoj Sibiri vol. 3 pp. 87–89. Izdatel’stvo Tomskogo Universiteta: Tomsk.

[RC93] Romano, M., W. T. Chang, W. T. Dean, G. D. Edgecombe, R. A. Fortey, D. J. Holloway, P. D. Lane, A. W. Owen, R. M. Owens, A. R. Palmer, A. W. A. Rushton, J. H. Shergold, D. J. Siveter & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Trilobita). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 279–296. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S80] Shergold, J. H. 1980. Late Cambrian trilobites from the Chatsworth Limestone, western Queensland. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics—Bulletin 186: 1–111.

[SS84] Shergold, J. H., & K. Sdzuy. 1984. Cambrian and early Tremadocian trilobites from Sultan Dağ, central Turkey. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 65 (1–3): 51–135.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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