Ptyctima

Lateral view of dorsal plates (A) and ventral plates (B) of Microtritia minima, from Balogh & Balogh (1992, The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 2).

Belongs within: Holonota.
Contains: Austrotritia, Mesotritia, Oribotritia, Indotritia, Euphthiracarus, Acrotritia, Microtritia, Phthiracarus (Phthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Archiphthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus), Hoplophthiracarus, Steganacarus, Atropacarinae.

The Ptyctima are a group of oribatid mites with a ptychoid body plan: that is, the legs can be fully withdrawn and the aspis rotated ventrad to cover the legs against the notogaster and ventral plate. Two major lineages are recognised in the Ptyctima, the Phthiracaridae and Euphthiracaroidea.

The Euphthiracaroidea are a group of ptychoid mites in which the body is strongly compressed laterally. Retraction of the legs is facilitated by relaxation of the notogaster to increase its volume (Norton 2001). In the family Synichotritiidae, the genital setae are in an antaxial position, in groups or transverse rows, while the Oribotritiidae and Euphthiracaridae both have the genital setae in a paraxial position, in a longitudinal row. The latter two families are distinguished in that the Euphthiracaridae have the ventral (anal and genital) plates fused into a single plate pair, while the Oribotritiidae have them at least partially separated. In the Bornean Temburongia patoi, the sides of the notogaster are produced ventrolaterally into two lobes that contact each other medially, in contrast to the simple notogastral margins leaving the V-shaped ventral region exposed in other genera (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

<==Ptyctima [Euptyctima]PL17
    |--EuphthiracaroideaDW10
    |    |--SynichotritiidaeS04
    |    |    |--Apotritia Norton & Lions 1992S04
    |    |    |    `--*A. walkeri Norton & Lions 1992S04
    |    |    |--Temburongia Mahunka 1990 [Temburongiidae]S04
    |    |    |    `--*T. patoi Mahunka 1990S04
    |    |    |--Synichotritia Walker 1965S04
    |    |    |    |--*S. caroli Walker 1965S04
    |    |    |    |--S. longipila Niedbała 2002S04
    |    |    |    |--S. parvipilosa Niedbała 2002S04
    |    |    |    `--S. spinulosa Walker 1965S04
    |    |    `--Sabahtritia Mahunka 1987S04
    |    |         |--*S. hauseri Mahunka 1987S04
    |    |         |--S. foveolata (Hu, Wang & Aoki 1991) [=Synichotritia foveolata]S04
    |    |         |--S. furcata (Hu & Wang 1992) [=Synichotritia furcata]S04
    |    |         |--S. lienhardi Mahunka 1995S04
    |    |         |--S. mirabilis Mahunka 1991S04
    |    |         |--S. sarawak Mahunka 1996S04
    |    |         `--S. tianmuensis (Hu, Wang & Aoki 1991) [=Synichotritia tianmuensis]S04
    |    |--OribotritiidaeS04
    |    |    |--AustrotritiaS04
    |    |    |--MesotritiaS04
    |    |    |--OribotritiaS04
    |    |    |--IndotritiaS04
    |    |    |--Paratritia Moritz 1966S04
    |    |    |    `--*P. baloghi Moritz 1966S04
    |    |    |--Terratritia Ramsay & Sheals 1969S04
    |    |    |    |--*T. askewi Ramsay & Sheals 1969S04
    |    |    |    `--T. seconda Mahunka 1991S04
    |    |    |--Sabacarus Ramsay & Sheals 1969S04
    |    |    |    |--*S. corneri Ramsay & Sheals 1969 [incl. S. ranokaoensis Hammer 1970]S04
    |    |    |    `--S. japonicus Shimano & Aoki 1997S04
    |    |    |--Maerkelotritia Hammer 1967S04
    |    |    |    |--M. kishidai (Aoki 1958)S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    |--M. crytopa (Banks 1904)S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    `--M. krivolutskyi Märkel 1968S04
    |    |    |         |--M. k. krivolutskyiS04
    |    |    |         `--M. k. mongolica Mahunka 1981S04
    |    |    `--Protoribotritia Jacot 1938S04
    |    |         |--*P. canadaris Jacot 1938S04
    |    |         |--P. aberrans (Märkel & Meyer 1959) [=Oribotritia aberrans]S04
    |    |         |--P. africana Mahunka 1985S04
    |    |         |--P. ensifer Aoki 1969 [=P. aberrans ensifer]S04
    |    |         `--P. oligotricha Märkel 1963S04
    |    `--Euphthiracaridae [Euphthiracarini]S04
    |         |--EuphthiracarusS04
    |         |--AcrotritiaS04
    |         |--Bukitritia Mahunka 1990S04
    |         |    `--*B. timah Mahunka 1990S04
    |         |--Sumatrotritia Mahunka 1989S04
    |         |    |--*S. inusitata Mahunka 1989S04
    |         |    |--S. elegans Mahunka 1991S04
    |         |    `--S. murphyi Mahunka 1999S04
    |         `--MicrotritiaS04
    `--Phthiracaridae [Hoplophoridae, Hoplophorinae, Phthiracarea, Phthiracarini, Phthiracaroidea, Steganacaridae]DW10
         |--Phthiracarus Perty 1841N91, S04 [Phthiracarinae]
         |    |  i. s.: P. forsslundiN01
         |    |         P. retaltecus (Stoll 1891) [=Hoplophora retalteca]M98
         |    |         P. sphaerulusJ37
         |    |         ‘Hoplophorella’ variolosa Berlese 1888N86a
         |    |--P. (Phthiracarus)S04
         |    |--P. (Archiphthiracarus)S04
         |    |--P. (Metaphthiracarus Aoki 1980)S04
         |    |    |--P. (M.) setosus (Banks 1895)S04 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--P. (M.) jumbongiensis (Niedbała 2002) [=Austrophthiracarus jumbongiensis]S04
         |    `--P. (Neophthiracarus)S04
         `--+--SteganacarinaeN91
            |    |--Plonaphacarus Niedbała 1986N91, S04 [Plonaphacarini]
            |    |    |--*P. eximius (Niedbała 1982)CH98 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |    |--P. adunctus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Rhacaplacarus aduncusS04]
            |    |    |--P. baculus Niedbała 2003N07
            |    |    |--P. feideri Niedbała 1987N06 [=Rhacaplacarus feideriS04]
            |    |    |--P. kugohi (Aoki 1959)SN98 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |    `--P. toolangiensis Niedbała 2006N06
            |    `--SteganacariniN86b
            |         |--HoplophthiracarusN91
            |         `--SteganacarusN91
            `--AtropacarinaeN91
Nomina nuda: Phthiracarus meridionalis Hammen 1959N86a
             Phthiracarus ponticus Krivolutsky 1975N86a

Maerkelotritia crytopa (Banks 1904)S04 [=Phthiracarus crytopusS04; incl. Oribotritia gibbera Walker 1965S04, Maerkelotritia gibberaA80, Phthiracarus maximus Ewing 1913S04]

Maerkelotritia kishidai (Aoki 1958)S04 [=Oribotritia kishidaiS04; incl. *M. alaskensis Hammer 1967S04, O. sellnicki Walker 1965S04, M. sellnickiA80]

Phthiracarus (Metaphthiracarus) setosus (Banks 1895)S04 [=Hoplophora setosaS04; incl. *Metaphthiracarus bacillatus Aoki 1980S04, Phthiracarus falcatus Hammer 1977S04, Archiphthiracarus filiferus Mahunka 1982S04, P. filiferusN84]

*Plonaphacarus eximius (Niedbała 1982)CH98 [=Hoplophthiracarus eximiusCH98, Rhacaplacarus eximiusS04; incl. Steganacarus politus Mahunka 1983S04]

Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki 1959)SN98 [=Hoplophthiracarus kugohiCH98; incl. Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka 1984S04, Hoplophthiracarus minor Mahunka 1991 non H. minus Krivolutsky 1966S04, Hoplophthiracarus rimosus Mahunka 1985S04, Hoplophtniracarus (l. c.) siamensis Aoki 1965CH98, Hoplophthiracarus kugohi siamensisCH98, Hoplophthiracarus wittmeri Bayoumi & Mahunka 1979S04, Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) yoshii Mahunka 1991S04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A80] Aoki, J. 1980. A revision of the oribatid mites of Japan. I. The families Phthiracaridae and Oribotritiidae. Bulletin of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University 6 (2): 1–89.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[J37] Jacot, A. P. 1937. Six new mites from western North Carolina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 163–166.

[M98] Michael, A. D. 1898. Oribatidae. In: H. Lohmann (ed.) Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen vol. 3. Acarina pp. 1–93. R. Friedländer und Sohn: Berlin.

[N84] Niedbała, W. 1984. Nouveaux Phthiracaridae d’Asie (Acari: Oribatida). Journal of Natural History 18: 829–842.

[N86a] Niedbała, W. 1986a. Catalogue des Phthiracaroidea (Acari), clef pour la détermination des espèces et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales Zoologici 40 (4): 309–370.

[N86b] Niedbała, W. 1986b. Système des Phthiracaroidea (Oribatida, Euptyctima). Acarologia 27 (1): 61–84.

[N91] Niedbała, W. 1991. Preliminary hypotheses on the biogeography of the Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 219–231. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[N01] Niedbała, W. 2001. Study of the diversity of Ptyctima (Acari: Oribatida) and quest for centres of its origin: the fauna of the Oriental and Australian regions. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 143–148. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N06] Niedbała, W. 2006. Supplement to the knowledge of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Australian region. Annales Zoologici 56 (Suppl. 1): 99–156.

[N07] Niedbała, W. 2007. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Costa Rica. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 39–42. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[PL17] Pachl, P., A. C. Lindl, A. Krause, S. Scheu, I. Schaefer & M. Maraun. 2017. The tropics as an ancient cradle of oribatid mite diversity. Acarologia 57 (2): 309–322.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[SN98] Swift, S. F., & R. A. Norton. 1998. Preliminary report on oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) diversity in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 57: 1–44.

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