Punctoidea

 Paralaoma caputspinulae, from here.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Helicodiscus, Oreohelix, Discus, Laoma, Paralaoma, Phrixgnathus, Gyrocochlea, Rhophodon, Ptychodon, Fectola, Geminoropa, Flammulina, Phenacohelix, Charopa, Allodiscus.

The Punctidae are a cosmopolitan (except South America) family of minute to small snails, most diverse in cool, moist upland habitats (Stanisic et al. 2010).

The Charopidae are a mostly Gondwanan family of very small snails, mostly found in rain forests.

Dot snails
Published 6 April 2015
A dot snail Punctum pygmaeum crawls over a mountain bulin Ena montana (itself not a very large snail). Copyright Stefan Haller.

The dot snails of the family Punctidae are one group of animals that certainly lives up to their name. For the most part, these are absolutely tiny terrestrial snails, sometimes barely passing the millimetre mark. They are united as a family by anatomical features of their radulae and reproductive systems (Solem 1983), but they show a variety of external morphologies, from higher-spired trochoid forms to flatter discoid forms. They also vary in ornament, with some being fairly smooth but others marked with distinct ridges, in some cases with spiny extensions of the periostracum. Most punctids are found in leaf litter, in which they graze on microalgae and detritus. The diverse fauna of punctids on Lord Howe Island, however, includes at least two species, Dignamoconcha dulcissima and Allenella formalis, that are arboreal, found living on palm tree leaves (Stanisic et al. 2010). Molecular analysis supports the inclusion of punctids in a group of small pulmonate gastropods known as the ‘endodontoid clade’ (Wade et al. 2001).

Live individual of Paralaoma servilis, from Christensen et al. (2012). Scale bar = 1 mm.

One would expect that such tiny snails would be easily overlooked, and it would not be surprising to find them amongst the tally of species that have been transported outside their native ranges by humans. One species, Lucilla singleyana, is associated with greenhouses in Europe; though known there from the fossil record, it is believed to have become extinct at the end of one of the interglacial periods and been subsequently reintroduced from North America (Alexandrowicz 2010). Another species, Paralaoma servilis, is believed to have originally been native to New Zealand but has been transported around the world, with expanding populations in Australia, Europe, North and South America (Christensen et al. 2012). Seeing as the fauna of my native New Zealand has suffered a lot at the hands of exotic introductions, I have to confess to a certain satisfaction at the idea that we’re giving our own back.

Systematics of Punctoidea
<==PunctoideaBR17
    |--Cystopelta Tate 1881SS10 [CystopeltidaeBR17, Cystopeltinae]
    |    |--*C. petterdi Tate 1881SS10
    |    |--C. astra Iredale 1937SS10
    |    `--C. septentrionalis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |--OopeltidaeBR17
    |    |--Oopelta Mörch 1867 [Oopeltinae]BR17
    |    |    `--*O. nigropunctata Mörch 1867BR17
    |    `--Ariopelta Sirgel 1985 [Ariopeltinae]BR05
    |         `--*A. capensis (Krauss 1848) [=Limax capensis]BR17
    |--Endodontidae [Endodontacea, Endodontinae]BR17
    |    |--Hebeispira hebeiensis Youlou 1978TTE93
    |    |--Cookeconcha subpacificus (Ladd 1958)TTE93
    |    |--AfrodontaPB27
    |    |--PhortionPB27
    |    `--Endodonta Albers 1850BR05
    |         `--E. (Thaunatodon) contorta [incl. Helix intercarinata Mighels 1845]J49
    |--HelicodiscidaeBR17
    |    |--HelicodiscusBR05
    |    |--Polygyriscus Pilsbry 1948S88
    |    |    `--P. virginianusBP90
    |    |--Stenopylis Fulton 1914KKW12 [incl. Coarctatio Haas 1945SS10; Stenopylidae, Stenopylinae]
    |    |    `--S. coarctata (Moellendorff in Quadras & Moellendorff 1894)KKW12 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--Speleodiscoides Smith 1957BP90
    |         `--S. spirellumBP90
    |--Oreohelicidae [Oreohelicinae]BR17
    |    |--OreohelixBR05
    |    `--Radiocentrum Pilsbry 1905BP90
    |         |--R. chiricahuanaBP90
    |         |--R. clappiBM84
    |         |--R. ferrissi (Pilsbry 1915) [=Oreohelix (Radiocentrum) ferrissi]P15
    |         |    |--R. f. ferrissiP15
    |         |    `--R. f. morticinum (Pilsbry 1915) [=Oreohelix (Radiocentrum) ferrissi morticina]P15
    |         `--R. hachetanum (Pilsbry 1915) [=Oreohelix (Radiocentrum) hachetana]P15
    |              |--R. h. hachetanumP15
    |              `--R. h. cadaver (Pilsbry 1915) [=Oreohelix (Radiocentrum) hachetana cadaver]P15
    |--DiscidaeBR17
    |    |--Protodiscus priscus (Carpenter 1867)TTE93
    |    |--Anguispira Morse 1864 [Anguispiridae]BR05
    |    |    |--*A. alternata (Say 1816) [=Helix alternata]BR17
    |    |    |    |--A. a. alternataP64
    |    |    |    |--A. a. crassaP64
    |    |    |    |--A. a. fergusoniJ65
    |    |    |    `--A. a. strongylodesP64
    |    |    `--A. kochiBP90
    |    |         |--A. k. kochiW63
    |    |         `--A. k. occidentalisW63
    |    `--DiscusBR05
    |--Punctidae [Laomidae, Polyplacognatha, Punctinae]SS10
    |    |--Afropunctum seminium (Morelet 1873)FGN07
    |    |--LaomaBR05
    |    |--ParalaomaSS10
    |    |--PhrixgnathusP61
    |    |--Patulastra Pfeiffer 1879 [Patulastridae]BR05
    |    |    `--*P. pygmaea (Draparnaud 1801)BR17 [=Helix pygmaeaBR17, Zonites (Verticillatae) pygmaeusG40; incl. H. kirbiiG40]
    |    |--Hydrophrea Climo 1974BV86
    |    |    `--H. academica (Climo 1970)BV86
    |    |--Iotula Iredale 1941SS10
    |    |    `--*I. microcosmos (Cox 1868) [=Helix microcosmos; incl. H. kempseyensis Cox 1872]SS10
    |    |--Charopinesta Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--*C. sema Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    `--C. goweri Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |--Dignamoconcha Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    `--*D. dulcissima Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |--Pseudiotula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--*P. eurysiana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |--Kaputaresta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--*K. nandewarensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |--Goweriana Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--*G. berniceae Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |--Laomarex Powell 1948P61
    |    |    `--*L. sericea Powell 1948P61
    |    |--Pernastela Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--*P. charon Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    `--P. gnoma Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |--Miselaoma Iredale 1933SS10
    |    |    |--*M. weldii (Tenison-Woods 1877) [=Helix weldii]SS10
    |    |    `--M. sinistra (Gabriel 1930) [=Laoma sinistra]SS10
    |    |--Trocholaoma Iredale 1937SS10
    |    |    |--*T. spiceri (Petterd 1879) [=Helix spiceri]SS10
    |    |    `--T. parvissima (Legrand 1871) [incl. Laoma pipaensis Suter 1894]SS10
    |    |--Allenella Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--*A. formalis Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    `--A. planorum Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |--Christianoconcha Iredale 1945SS10
    |    |    |--*C. quintali Iredale 1945SS10
    |    |    `--C. orestias (Preston 1913)SS10
    |    |--Punctum Morse 1864BR05
    |    |    |--*P. minutissimum (Lea 1841) [=Helix minutissima]BR17
    |    |    |--P. californicumPF15
    |    |    |--P. pygmaeum (Draparnaud 1801)NB19
    |    |    |--P. smithiH68
    |    |    `--P. vitreumH68
    |    |--Magilaoma Iredale 1937SS10
    |    |    |--*M. parpictilis Iredale 1937SS10
    |    |    |--M. canobla Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--M. penolensis (Cox 1868)SS10
    |    |--Semilaoma Iredale 1944SS10
    |    |    |--*S. abjecta (Iredale 1944) [=Paralaoma (*Semilaoma) abjecta]SS10
    |    |    |--S. costata Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    |--S. laevis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
    |    |    `--S. lidgbirdensis Iredale 1944SS10
    |    `--Monomphalus Ancey 1882B65
    |         |--M. rossiterianus (Crosse 1871) (see below for synonymy)B65
    |         `--M. bavayi (Crosse & Marie 1868) [=Helix bavayi]B65
    `--CharopidaeBR17
         |  i. s.: Discocharopa Iredale 1913KKW12
         |           |--*D. exquisita (Iredale 1913) [=Charopa exquisita]SS10
         |           |--D. aperta (Moellendorff 1888) (see below for synonymy)KKW12
         |           |--D. concentrivolva Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--D. expandivolva Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--D. pexa (Cox 1868) [=Egilomen pexa]SS10
         |           `--D. stenomphala Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Pilsbrycharopa Solem 1958S88
         |           `--P. tumidus (Odhner 1917) [=Endodonta (Charopa) tumida, Luinodiscus tumidus]S88
         |         Pillomena Iredale 1933S88
         |           `--P. aemula (Tate 1894) [=Charopa aemula, Endodonta (Charopa) aemula]S88
         |         Paryphantopsis Thiele 1928S88
         |         GraeffedonS88
         |         Radiodiscus Pilsbry & Ferris 1906BP90
         |           |--R. abietumBP90
         |           |--R. (Radioconus) bactricolaB59
         |           `--R. millecostatusBP90
         |         Cralopa Iredale 1941SS10
         |           |--*C. stroudensis (Cox 1864) [=Helix stroudensis]SS10
         |           `--C. kaputarensis Stanisic 1990SS10
         |         Egilomen Iredale 1937SS10
         |           |--*E. cochlidium (Cox 1868) [=Helix cochlidium]SS10
         |           |--E. lirataSC07
         |           `--E. sebastopol Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Scelidoropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--*S. sarahjaneae Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--S. nandewar Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Diphyoropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--*D. saturni (Cox 1864) [=Helix saturni; incl. H. costulata Cox 1864]SS10
         |           |--D. jonesi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--D. macleayana Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Leurocochlea Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*L. daviei Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--L. boosamraae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Macrophallikoropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--*M. belli (Cox 1864) [=Helix belli]SS10
         |           |--M. depressispira Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--M. stenoumbilicata Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Coenocharopa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--*C. sordidus Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--C. aculeata (Hedley 1899)SS10
         |           |--C. alata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--C. elegans Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--C. macromphala Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--C. multiradiata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--C. parvicostata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--C. yessabahensis Stanisic 1990SS10
         |         Elsothera Iredale 1933SS10
         |           |--*E. sericatula (Pfeiffer 1849) [=Helix sericatula; incl. Patula biretracta Mousson 1869]SS10
         |           |--E. belubula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--E. brazieri (Cox 1868)SS10
         |           |--E. funerea (Cox 1868)SS10
         |           |--E. genithecata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--E. grossa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--E. hewittorum Stanisic 1996SS10
         |           |--E. kyliestumkatae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--E. nautilodea (Cox 1866) [incl. Helix inusta Cox 1868]SS10
         |         Ngairea Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--*N. dorrigoensis (Iredale 1941) [=Oreokera dorrigoensis]SS10
         |           |--N. canaliculata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--N. corticicola (Cox 1866)SS10
         |           |--N. levicostata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--N. murphyi (Cox 1864)SS10
         |         Coricudgia Hyman & Stanisic 2205SS10
         |           `--*C. wollemiana Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Macleayropa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*M. carraiensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--M. boonanghi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--M. kookaburra Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         GyrocochleaSS10
         |         Letomola Iredale 1941SS10
         |           |--*L. contortus (Hedley 1924) [=Rhophodon contortus]SS10
         |           `--L. lanalittleae Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Oreomava Kershaw 1956SS10
         |           |--*O. otwayensis (Petterd 1879) [=Helix otwayensis]SS10
         |           `--O. cannfluviatilis (Gabriel 1929)SS10
         |         Hedleyropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--*H. yarrangobillyensis Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Flammulops Iredale 1937SS10
         |           `--*F. excelsior (Hedley 1896) [=Flammulina excelsior]SS10
         |         Egilodonta Iredale 1937SS10
         |           |--*E. bairnsdalensis (Gabriel 1930) [=Charopa bairnsdalensis]SS10
         |           |--E. bendethera Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--E. paucidentata Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--E. wyanbenensis Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Decoriropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--*D. lirata (Cox 1864) [=Helix lirata]SS10
         |         Marilyniropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--*M. jenolanensis Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Richardsoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*R. mylesorum Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Sharniropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--*S. wollondillyana Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           |--S. borenorensis Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--S. xanana Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Acheronopa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--*A. attunga Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |         Gouldiropa Hyman & Stanisic 2005SS10
         |           `--*G. carlessi (Stanisic 1990) [=Cralopa carlessi]SS10
         |         RhophodonSS10
         |         Luturopa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*L. kenilworth Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--L. macleayiensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--L. rockhamptoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Setomedea Iredale 1941SS10
         |           |--*S. seticostata (Hedley 1924) [=Suteria seticostata]SS10
         |           |--S. ianlochi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--S. janae Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--S. monteithi Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--S. nudicostata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |         Koreelahropa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*K. paucicostata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--K. plowmanae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Sinployea Solem 1983SS10
         |           |--*S. peasei Solem 1982 [=Sinployia peasei]SS10
         |           |--S. intensa (Iredale 1941)SS10
         |           `--S. intermedia (Odhner 1917)SS10
         |         Whiteheadia Hyman & Stanisic 2005 non Harv. 1868 (ICBN)SS10
         |           `--*W. globosa (Stanisic 1990) [=Egilomen globosa]SS10
         |         Mussonula Iredale 1937SS10
         |           |--*M. verax Iredale 1937SS10
         |           `--M. fallax Stanisic 1990SS10
         |         Nautiliropa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--*N. omicron (Pfeiffer 1851) [=Helix omicron; incl. H. ammonitoides Reeve 1854]SS10
         |         Omphaloropa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--*O. varicosa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |         Ygernaropa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*Y. binnaburra Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--Y. baehrae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Rotacharopa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--*R. annabelli Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--R. alisonmillerae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--R. archeriana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--R. densilamellata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--R. kessneri Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--R. munroeae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Lenwebbia Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--*L. protoscrobiculata Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           `--L. paluma Stanisic 1993SS10
         |         Spiraliropa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*S. carnarvon Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Shearopa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*S. magnetica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--S. offordae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Biomphalopa Stanisic 1990SS10
         |           |--*B. recava (Hedley 1912) [=Endodonta recava]SS10
         |           |--B. concinna (Hedley 1924)SS10
         |           `--B. lewisrobertsi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Isolderopa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*I. iangallowayi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--I. deliqua Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--I. minuta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Pereduropa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*P. cursacosta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--P. delicata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--P. hamiltoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Excaliburopa Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--*E. chillagoe Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--E. greenvaleiana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           |--E. leroii Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--E. nimue Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Oreokera Stanisic 1987SS10
         |           |--*O. cumulus (Odhner 1917) [=Flammulina cumulus]SS10
         |           `--O. nimbus Stanisic 1987SS10
         |         Danielleilona Stanisic 1993SS10
         |           |--*D. marycolliverae Stanisic 1993SS10
         |           `--D. multicostata Stanisic 1993SS10
         |         Dividospiralia Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*D. alba Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Setoturbinata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |           `--*S. taylori Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 [=S. spinosa]SS10
         |         Charopella Iredale 1944SS10
         |           |--*C. zela Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--C. wilkinsoni (Hedley 1891)SS10
         |         Goweroconcha Iredale 1944SS10
         |           |--*G. wilsoni Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--G. waterhousiae (Hedley 1897)SS10
         |         Gyropena Iredale 1944SS10
         |           |--*G. verans Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--G. minuta Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010SS10
         |         Mystivagor Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--*M. mastersi (Brazier 1872) [=Simpulopsis mastersi]SS10
         |         Pulcharopa Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--*P. plesa Iredale 1944SS10
         |         Cryptocharopa Preston 1913SS10
         |           `--C. exagitans (Cox 1870) [incl. *C. atlantoididea Preston 1913]SS10
         |         Norfolcioconcha Preston 1913SS10
         |           `--N. norfolkensis (Hedley 1899) [=Endodonta norfolkensis]SS10
         |         Penescosta Iredale 1944SS10
         |           `--*P. mathewsi (Preston 1913) [=Charopa mathewsi; incl. P. harperensis Iredale 1945]SS10
         |         PtychodonP61
         |         Phenacharopa Pilsbry 1893P61
         |           `--*P. novoseelandica (Pfeiffer 1893) [=Pupa novoseelandica]P61
         |         Aeschrodomus Pilsbry 1892P61
         |           |--*A. stipulata (Reeve 1852) [=Helix stipulata]P61
         |           |--A. barbatula (Reeve 1852)P61
         |           `--A. worleyi Powell 1928P61
         |         Egestula Iredale 1915P61
         |           |--*E. egesta (Gray 1850) [=Helix egesta]P61
         |           `--E. gaza (Suter 1909)P61
         |         FectolaP61
         |         Subfectola Powell 1939P61
         |           |--*S. caputspinulae (Reeve 1852) [=Helix caputspinulae]P61
         |           `--S. rakiura Powell 1939P61
         |         Mocella Iredale 1915P61
         |           |--M. cogitata Iredale 1941 [incl. Helix corniculum, *Mocella corniculum]P61
         |           |--M. alloia (Webster 1904)P61
         |           |--M. kenepuruensis (Suter 1909)P61
         |           |--M. manawatawhia Powell 1935P61
         |           |--M. prestoni (Sykes 1895)P61
         |           `--M. segregata (Suter 1894)P61
         |         Cavellia Iredale 1915P61
         |           `--*C. biconcava (Pfeiffer 1853) [=Helix biconcava]P61
         |         GeminoropaP61
         |--Rotadiscus Pilsbry 1926 [Rotadiscinae]BR05
         |    `--*R. hermanni (Pfeiffer 1866) [=Helix hermanni]BR17
         |--Semperdon Solem 1983 [Semperdoninae]BR05
         |    `--*S. xyleborus Solem 1983BR17
         |--Trukcharopa Solem 1983 [Trukcharopinae]BR05
         |    `--*T. trukana Solem 1983BR17
         |--Thysanota Martens 1860BR17 [ThysanotinaeBR05]
         |    |--*T. guerini (Pfeiffer 1842) [=Helix guerini]BR17
         |    |--T. elegans Preston 1909S88
         |    `--T. eumita Sykes 1898S88
         |--Otoconchinae [Otoconchidae]BR05
         |    |--Otoconcha Hutton 1883BR17
         |    |    `--*O. dimidiata (Pfeiffer 1851) [=Vitrina dimidiata]BR17
         |    `--Maoriconcha Dell 1952P61
         |         |--*M. oconnori (Powell 1941) [=Helicarion oconnori]P61
         |         `--M. fiordlandica Dell 1952P61
         `--Charopinae [Amphidoxinae, Flammulinidae, Flammulininae]BR05
              |--FlammulinaBR05
              |--PhenacohelixBR05
              |--CharopaBR05
              |--AllodiscusP61
              |--Amphidoxa Albers 1850BR05
              |    `--*A. marmorella (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Helix marmorella]BR17
              |--Ranfurlya Suter 1903 [Ranfurlyinae]BR05
              |    `--*R. constanceae Suter 1903P61
              |--Gerontia Hutton 1883P61
              |    `--*G. pantherina Hutton 1883P61
              |--Pella Martens 1860BR17 [=Trachycystis Pilsbry 1893BR05; Trachycystidae, Trachycystoidea]
              |    |--*P. bisculpta (Benson 1851) [=Helix bisculpta, *Trachycystis bisculpta]BR17
              |    `--‘Trachycystis’ seminiumPB27
              |--Dipnelix Iredale 1937 [Dipnelicidae]BR05
              |    |--*D. pertricosa Iredale 1937BR17
              |    `--D. alychnopis Macpherson 1954M54
              |--Flammoconcha Dell 1952 [Flammoconchinae]BR05
              |    |--*F. cumberi (Powell 1941) [=Helicarion (Peloparion) cumberi]P61
              |    `--F. stewartensis Dell 1952P61
              |--Serpho Hutton 1904P61
              |    |--*S. kivi (Gray 1843) [=Nanina kivi]P61
              |    `--S. matthewsi Suter 1909P61
              |--Pseudocharopa Peile 1929BR05 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--*P. ledgbirdi (Hedley 1891)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--P. exquisita Peile 1929SS10
              |    `--P. whiteleggei (Brazier 1889) [incl. P. editor Iredale 1944]SS10
              |--Hedleyoconcha Pilsbry 1893 [Hedleyoconchidae]BR05
              |    |--*H. delta (Pfeiffer 1859)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--H. addita Iredale 1944SS10
              |    `--H. ailaketoae Stanisic 1990SS10
              |--Thermia Hutton 1904P61
              |    |--*T. cressida (Hutton 1883) [=Pfeifferia cressida]P61
              |    |--T. subincarnata (Suter 1894)P61
              |    `--T. virescens (Suter 1899)P61
              |--Therasiella Powell 1948P61
              |    |--*T. celinde (Gray 1850) [=Nanina celinde]P61
              |    |--T. pectinifera (Powell 1935)P61
              |    `--T. tamora (Hutton 1833)P61
              |--Obanella Dell 1952P61
              |    |--*O. spectabilis (Powell 1928) [=Egestula spectabilis]P61
              |    |--O. allanae Dell 1952P61
              |    `--O. rimutaka Dell 1952P61
              |--Therasia Hutton 1883 [Therasiinae]BR05
              |    |--*T. thaisa Hutton 1883P61
              |    |--T. decidua (Pfeiffer 1857)P61
              |    |--T. ophelia (Pfeiffer 1855)P61
              |    |--T. traversi (Smith 1884)P61
              |    `--T. valeria Hutton 1883P61
              |--Phelussa Iredale 1915P61
              |    |--*P. hypopolia (Pfeiffer 1853) [=Helix hypopolia]P61
              |    |--P. costata (Suter 1899)P61
              |    |--P. fulminata (Hutton 1883)P61
              |    |--P. helmsi (Hutton 1883)P61
              |    |--P. henryi (Suter 1899)P61
              |    `--P. oconnori Powell 1941P61
              `--Thalassohelix Pilsbry 1892P61
                   |--*T. zelandiae (Gray 1843)G01 [=Heliz zelandiaeP61]
                   |--T. antipoda (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841)P61
                   |    |--T. a. antipodaP61
                   |    `--T. a. chathamensis (Suter 1909)P61
                   |--T. igniflua (Reeve 1852)P61
                   |--T. laingi (Suter 1905)P61
                   |--T. obnubila (Reeve 1852)P61
                   |--T. propinqua (Hutton 1883)P61
                   `--T. prousei Powell 1952P61

Discocharopa aperta (Moellendorff 1888) [=Patula aperta; incl. Endodonta concinna Hedley 1901, Discocharopa microdiscus van Benthem Jutting 1964, E. (Charopa) planorbulina Tate 1896]KKW12

*Hedleyoconcha delta (Pfeiffer 1859)BR17 [=Helix deltaBR17; incl. Helix conoidea Cox 1864 non Draparnaud 1805SS10, Hedleyoconcha duona Iredale 1937SS10, Helix fenestrata Cox 1866 non Sowerby 1841SS10]

Monomphalus rossiterianus (Crosse 1871) [=Flammulina rossiteriana; incl. Helix heckeliana Crosse 1872, *Monomphalus heckelianus]B65

Pseudocharopa Peile 1929BR05 [incl. Ballena Iredale 1944SS10, Deceptrena Iredale 1944SS10, Howeinsulea Peile 1929SS10, Lidgbirdia Iredale 1944SS10; Pseudocharopidae]

*Pseudocharopa ledgbirdi (Hedley 1891)BR17 [=Patula whitleggei var. ledgbirdiSS10; incl. Helix (Rhytida) balli Brazier 1889SS10, Pseudocharopa gowerensis Iredalew 1944SS10, P. imperator Iredale 1944SS10, P. imperator monta Iredale 1944SS10]

Stenopylis coarctata (Moellendorff in Quadras & Moellendorff 1894)KKW12 [=Plectopylis coarctataKKW12; incl. Planispira hemiclausa Tate 1894KKW12, *Stenopylis hemiclausaSS10, Helix (Polygyra) microdiscus Bavay 1908KKW12]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[BM84] Babrakzai, N., & W. B. Miller. 1984. Cytogenetic study of interspecific hybrids of Ashmunella (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Polygyridae), I. A. proxima × A. lenticula F1 hybrids. Malacologia 25 (2): 413–426.

[B59] Baker, H. B. 1959. Publications received: Endodontidos Neotropicales, I. II. By M. I. Hylton Scott. Nautilus 72 (4): 148.

[B65] Baker, H. B. 1965. Monomphalus (Punctidae). Nautilus 78 (4): 141–142.

[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 177–208. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Christensen, C. C., N. W. Yeung & K. A. Hayes. 2012. First records of Paralaoma servilis (Shuttleworth, 1852) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Punctidae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 112: 3–7.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[G01] Goulstone, J. F. 2001. A revision of the genus Phenacohelix Suter, 1892 (Mollusca: Pulmonata) with descriptions of four new species and reassignment of Thalassohelix ziczag (Gould, 1846). Records of the Auckland Museum 38: 39–82.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[H68] Hubricht, L. 1968. The land snails of Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Nautilus 82 (1): 24–28.

[J65] Jacobson, M. K. 1965. New records for New York and New Jersey. Nautilus 78 (3): 83–86.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[KKW12] Köhler, F., V. Kessner & C. Whisson. 2012. New records of non-marine, non-camaenid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from islands off the Kimberley coast, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 21–39.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[NB19] Nardi, G., A. Braccia, S. Cianfanelli & M. Bodon. 2019. Revision of the systematic position of Lindbergia garganoensis Gittenberger & Eikenboom, 2006, with reassignment to Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833 (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Pristilomatidae). Basteria 83 (1–3): 19–28.

[P15] Pilsbry, H. A. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VI: the Hacheta Grande, Florida, and Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 323–350, pls 5–7.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P64] Pratt, W. L., Jr. 1964. Two eastern land snails new to Texas. Nautilus 78 (1): 31–32.

Solem, A. 1983. Endodontoid land snails from Pacific islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II. Families Punctidae and Charopidae, zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History: Chicago.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[SC07] Stanisic, J., R. A. D. Cameron, B. M. Pokryszko & J. C. Nekola. 2007. Forest snail faunas from S. E. Queensland and N. E. New South Wales (Australia): patterns of local and regional richness and differentiation. Malacologia 49 (2): 445–462.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Wade, C. M., P. B. Mordan & B. Clarke. 2001. A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 268: 413–422.

[W63] Walton, M. L. 1963. Length of life in west American land snails. Nautilus 76 (4): 127–131.

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