Pycnonotus

Black-crested bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus, copyright Don-Jean Léandri.

Belongs within: Pycnonotidae.

Pycnonotus is a diverse genus of bulbuls found in Africa and southern Asia, with the higher diversity of species in the latter. Notable members include the red-whiskered bulbul P. jocosus, native to southern and south-eastern Asia, which has brown upperparts, whitish underparts, an erect black crest, red cheek-patch and red vent.

Pycnonotus Boie 1826B94 [incl. Brachypus Swainson 1824 non Meyer 1814B94, Oreoctistes Sharpe 1888L03, Rubigula Blyth 1845B94]
|--+--+--P. atricepsJT12 [=*Brachypus atricepsB94]
| | `--P. urostictusJT12
| | |--P. u. urostictusL03
| | `--P. u. atricaudatus Parkes 1867L03
| `--+--P. eutilotusJT12 [incl. Pinarocichla euptilosaeL03]
| `--P. melanoleucosJT12
`--+--+--P. melanicterusBKB15
| | |--P. m. melanicterusS02
| | `--P. m. gularisS02
| `--+--P. erythropthalmosBKB15
| `--+--P. cyaniventrisBKB15
| `--P. squamatusJT12
`--+--Spizixos Blyth 1845JT12, B94 [Spizixidae]
| |--S. canifronsJT12
| `--S. semitorquesJT12
| |--S. s. semitorquesL03
| `--S. s. cinereicapillus Swinhoe 1871 [=Spizixus cinereicapillus]L03
`--+--+--P. finlaysoni Strickland 1844BKB15, W66
| `--P. zeylanicusJT12
`--+--+--P. simplexBKB15
| | |--P. s. simplexL03
| | `--P. s. prillwitzi Hartert 1902L03
| `--+--P. brunneusJT12
| `--P. plumosusJT12
`--+--P. flavescensBKB15
| |--P. f. flavescensL03
| `--P. f. leucops (Sharpe 1888) [=Oreoctistes leucops]L03
`--+--P. goiavierBKB15
`--+--+--P. jocosusBKB15
| | |--P. j. jocosusL81
| | |--P. j. emeriaL81
| | |--P. j. pattaniL81
| | `--P. j. whistleriL81
| `--+--P. xanthorrhousBKB15 [=Ixus xanthorrhousS89]
| | |--P. x. xanthorrhousVP89
| | `--P. x. andersoniVP89
| `--+--P. sinensis (Gmel. 1788)JT12, M01 [=Muscicapa sinensisM01, Ixus sinensisM01]
| | |--P. s. sinensisL03
| | |--P. s. formosae Hartert 1910L03
| | `--P. s. orii Kuroda 1923I92
| `--P. taivanusJT12
`--+--P. cafer (Linnaeus 1766)BKB15, CC10 [=Turdus caferCC10]
| |--P. c. caferCC10 [incl. P. c. vicinus Ripley 1946L03]
| |--P. c. bengalensis Blyth 1845CC10
| |--P. c. melanchimus Deignan 1949L03
| `--P. c. stanfordi Deignan 1949L03
`--+--+--P. leucogenys (Gray 1835)BKB15, L03 (see below for synonymy)
| `--P. xanthopygosBKB15
`--+--P. capensisBKB15
`--+--P. barbatus (Desfontaines 1789)BKB15, U93 [=Ixos barbatusB94]
| |--P. b. barbatusL03
| |--P. b. dodsoni Sharpe 1895 [incl. P. dodsoni teitensis van Someren 1922]L03
| |--P. b. gabonensis Sharpe 1871 [incl. P. b. nigeriae Hartert 1921]L03
| `--P. b. schoanus Neumann 1905L03
`--P. nigricansJT12

Pycnonotus incertae sedis:
P. atricapillusS89
P. aurigasterJT12
|--P. a. aurigasterL03
`--P. a. latouchei Deignan 1949L03
P. bimaculatusJT12
P. blanfordiJT12
‘Rubigula’ flaviventris [=Otocompsa flaviventris]S89
P. haemorrhousW66
P. hualonJT12
P. leucogrammicusJT12
P. leucotis (Gould 1836)JT12, L03 [=P. leucogenys leucotisL03; incl. Molpastes leucotis farahensis Koelz 1939L03]
P. luteolusJT12
P. nieuwenhuisiiJT12
P. nigropileus Blyth 1847W66
P. penicillatusJT12
P. priocephalusJT12
P. pygaeusW66
P. striatusJT12
P. tympanistrigusJT12
P. virensMM06
P. xantholaemusJT12

Pycnonotus leucogenys (Gray 1835)BKB15, L03 [=Molpastes leucogenysG73; incl. Molpastes leucogenys picru Koelz 1954L03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[G73] Gauntlett, F. M. 1973. Notes on some Kashmir birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 591–615.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MM06] Mayr, G., & A. Manegold. 2006. New specimens of the earliest European passeriform bird. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (2): 315–323.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds—a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537–543.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

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