Pyraloidea

Golden-brown fern moth Musotima nitidalis, copyright Tim Norriss.

Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Pyraustinae, Spilomelinae, Schoenobiinae, Scopariinae, Crambinae, Botys, Galleriinae, Pyralinae, Nymphulinae, Epipaschiinae, Anerastiini.

The Pyraloidea, snout moths, are a diverse group of moths bearing tympanic organs at the anterior of the abdomen. Members of this group may be divided into families based on the structure of these organs which are open in the Crambidae but almost closed in the Pyralidae. The tympani are reduced and not externally visible in the Lathrotelinae. Larvae are mostly herbivorous but some are predatory on other insects; some are even aquatic, living among submerged plants. Several species are economically important such as the meal moth Pyralis farinalis and the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

Subgroups of the Pyraloidea include the Phycitinae, a particularly diverse subfamily whose larvae are mostly leafrollers. The Hydrocampinae are slender, long-legged wings characterised by vein R2 on the wing stalked with R3 and R4. The genus Musotima, characterised by an incision in the termen of the hind wing, has larvae that feed on ferns (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Erupini are a Neotropical group of often robust pyraloids with fairly broad, parallel-sided wings. The Glaphyriinae are a primarily New World group with an unlobed praecinctorium (Nielsen & Common 1991). Odontiinae are characterised by strongly modified male genitalia that, in at least the species Syntonarcha iriastis, are used in ultrasonic sound production (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, for Pyralidae): Small to large; head smooth scaled, sometimes with anterior tuft; ocelli and chaetosemata present or absent; antennae filiform and ciliated, rarely uni- or bipectinate; proboscis densely scaled near base, sometimes reduced or vestigial; maxillary palps scaled, usually four-segmented, sometimes two- or three-segmented, rarely vestigial; labial palps porrect, beak-like, or ascending, especially in male, rarely reduced; epiphysis present, spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-2; fore wing without chord and M stem in cell, with R3 and R4 stalked or coincident, M2 approximated to M3 at base. CuP rarely present, 1A+2A usually with large fork; hind wing of female with one to three frenular bristles, Sc+R1 approximated to, or shortly fused with, Rs beyond discal cell, M2 approximated to M3 at base, CuA sometimes with basal pecten, CuP rarely absent, anal area large, with two anal veins; tympanal organs present at base of abdomen, coremata often present. Eggs of flat type, usually oval. Larva usually without secondary setae, prothorax with two L setae, crochets usually bi- or triordinal, in a circle or mesal penellipse, rarely uni- or biordinal in two transverse bands; in Nymphulinae larvae adapted for aquatic life, respiration by means of filamentous gills or plastron or cutaneously; in shelters of webbed leaves or shoots, or tunnels in shoots, stems, sead heads, fruits or galls, or in silken galleries among mosses, herbaceous plants, or fallen leaves, or in shelters or cases among aquatic plants in fresh water, or in stored products, or in nests of Hymenoptera, rarely predaceous on coccoids. Pupa with pilifers defined, maxillary palps present (except in Epipaschiinae), antennae long, abdomen without dorsal spines, cremaster present or absent; in Nymphulinae abdominal spiracles may be reduced in number; in silken cocoon or in larval shelter, not protruded at ecdysis.

<==PyraloideaGE05
    |--Crambidae [Crambites]YS10
    |    |  i. s.: Neargyria argyraspisP27
    |    |         Ubida ramostriellaP27
    |    |         MestolobesO94
    |    |         UdeaO94
    |    |         CybalomiinaeLLN19
    |    |         Lathrotelinae [Lathrotelidae]LLN19
    |    |         LinostinaeLLN19
    |    |--+--PyraustinaeLLN19
    |    |  `--SpilomelinaeLLN19
    |    `--+--NoordaLLN19
    |       |    |--N. blitealisLLN19
    |       |    `--N. moringaVHK02
    |       `--+--+--Glaphyriinae [Evergestinae]LLN19
    |          |  |    |--HellulaNC91
    |          |  |    |    |--H. hydralisNC91
    |          |  |    |    |--H. phidilealisH01
    |          |  |    |    `--H. undalisNC91
    |          |  |    |--Evergestis extimalisLLN19, F92
    |          |  |    `--CrocidolomiaNC91
    |          |  |         |--C. palindialisH01
    |          |  |         `--C. pavonanaNC91
    |          |  `--Odontiinae [Hercynidae]LLN19
    |          |       |--Syntonarcha Meyrick 1890NC91, M90
    |          |       |    `--*S. iriastis Meyrick 1890M90
    |          |       `--Cynaeda dentalisLLN19
    |          `--+--+--MusotimaNC91 [MusotiminaeLLN19]
    |             |  |    |--M. acriasP27
    |             |  |    |--M. aduncalisL27
    |             |  |    |--M. nitidalisNC91
    |             |  |    `--M. ochropteralisG84
    |             |  `--Hoploscopa [Hoploscopini]LLN19
    |             `--+--+--AcentropinaeLLN19
    |                |  |    |--AcentropusRD77
    |                |  |    |--Acentria ephemerellaLLN19
    |                |  |    `--ElophilaLLN19
    |                |  |         |--E. icciusalisKP19
    |                |  |         `--E. nymphaeataLLN19
    |                |  `--+--Midila [Midilinae]LLN19
    |                |     |    |--M. daphneLLN19
    |                |     |    `--M. halia Druce 1900D00
    |                |     `--SchoenobiinaeLLN19
    |                `--+--Heliothela [Heliothelinae]LLN19
    |                   |    |--H. floricolaP27
    |                   |    |--H. ophideresanaLLN19
    |                   |    `--H. wulfenianaLLN19
    |                   `--+--ScopariinaeLLN19
    |                      `--+--CrambinaeLLN19
    |                         `--ErupiniLLN19
    |                              |--ErupaD00
    |                              |    |--E. cluaca Druce 1900D00
    |                              |    |--E. gigantea Druce 1900D00
    |                              |    |--E. gyges Druce 1900D00
    |                              |    `--E. rhaetia Druce 1900D00
    |                              |--LanciaLLN19
    |                              |--NeerupaLLN19
    |                              `--SchoenerupaLLN19
    `--Pyralidae [Botydidae, Pyralididae]GE05
         |  i. s.: BotyodesA71
         |         FilodesA71
         |         PioneaA71
         |           |--P. bifascialis Guénée 1849E12
         |           `--P. conquistalis Guénée 1849E12
         |         TypsanodesA71
         |         Balaenifrons ochrochroaKN03
         |         BradypophilaGE05
         |         Upiga virescensGE05
         |         EurrhyperiaGE05
         |         MunroessaGE05
         |         Dicymdomia julianalisGE05
         |         MetoecisGE05
         |         Chalcoela pegasalis [=Dicymolomia pegasalis]B37
         |         BradypodicolaGE05
         |         CryptosesGE05
         |         Homochroa Hübner 1825NO08
         |         Deanolis sublimbalisMHG04
         |         Hypotia delicatilis Asselbergs 2004F05
         |         Arimania komaroffiYS10
         |         Aetholix flavibasalisZS10
         |         Pygospila tyresZS10
         |         Hapalia machaeralisG84, VHK02
         |         Mampava rhodoneuraG84
         |         EurrhyparaV09
         |           |--E. hortulataV09
         |           `--E. urticataF92
         |         Myelois circumvolutaV09
         |         BotysP01
         |         Eurycreon sticticalisP01
         |         Phostria odontostictaMC13
         |         Mimaglossa nauplialisNC91
         |         StemorrhagesC91
         |           |--S. lustralisPP72
         |           `--S. marthesiusalisC91
         |         Pachyarches psittacalis [=Margarodes psittacalis]M86a
         |         Archernis Meyrick 1886M86a
         |           `--*A. callixantha Meyrick 1886M86a
         |         SemiocerosM86a
         |         Nosophora ochnodes Meyrick 1886M86a
         |         OmiodesM86a
         |         BalanotisL90
         |           |--B. arctandalis Lucas 1890L90
         |           |--B. carinentalisL90
         |           |--B. didymalisL90
         |           `--B. recurvalis [=Salma recurvalis; incl. Crambus melanospilellus, Exacosmia rubiginosa]M86b
         |         Aletes Rafinesque 1815N47
         |         Dicymolomia julianalisB37
         |         Glendotricha olgae Kuznetsov 1941P92
         |         Amyelois transitellaKP19
         |         Beebea guglielmiPP72
         |         Spilodes aeruginalisC1890
         |         Centropseustis Meyrick 1890M90
         |           `--*C. astrapora Meyrick 1890M90
         |         CledeobiaM90
         |           |--C. interjunctalis Guénée 1849E12
         |           `--C. morbidalis Guénée 1849E12
         |         Diplopseustis perieralisM90, L27
         |         MargarostichaPH10
         |           |--M. euprepialisPH10
         |           `--M. repetitalisPH10
         |         Eoophyla argyrilinalePH10
         |         Paraponyx stagnalisPH10
         |--GalleriinaeNC91
         |--PyralinaeNC91
         |--NymphulinaeGE05
         |--NiphopyralisNC91 [WurthiinaeGE05]
         |    `--N. chionesisNC91
         |--Styphlolepis [Cymbalomiinae]NC91
         |    `--S. agenorNC91
         |--ChrysauginaeC70
         |    |--Drymiarcha exanthesC70
         |    `--Streptopalpia deeraH01
         |--Hydrocampinae [Hydrocampidae]H01
         |    |--Ambia metalophota Hmpsn. 1897H01
         |    |--Piletocera bufalisH01
         |    |--HydrocampaE12
         |    |    |--H. algiralis Guénée 1849E12
         |    |    `--H. verticalisF92
         |    |--Tetrernia Meyrick 1890M90
         |    |    `--*T. teminitis Meyrick 1890M90
         |    `--Hydreuretis sacadalis [=Hydrocampa sacadalis, Hydro. sacadusalis]M90
         |--EpipaschiinaeH03
         `--Phycitinae [Phycitidae]H03
              |  i. s.: TylocharesH03
              |         Meyrickiella homosemaH03
              |         EtiellaH03
              |           |--E. behriiNC91
              |           `--E. zinkenellaYS10
              |         AddymeH03
              |         IndomalayiaH03
              |         Vinicia macrotaH03
              |         MetephestiaH03
              |         Ectomyelois ceratoniaeH03, CK15
              |         EphestiaH03
              |           |--E. bipunctella Hampson 1901H01
              |           |--E. cautella Wlk. 1863H01
              |           |--E. elutellaNC91
              |           |--E. figulilellaC70
              |           `--E. kuehniellaNC91
              |         HomoeosomaP27
              |           |--H. formacellaP27
              |           |--H. longiventrellaH01
              |           `--H. vagellaG84
              |         Sclerobia tritalis (Walker 1863)K66 (see below for synonymy)
              |         Crocydopora cinigerella [=Nephopteryx cinigerella; incl. N. stenopterella Meyr. 1878]M86b
              |         Delogenes limodoxaP27
              |         EpicrocisP27
              |           |--E. oppositalis [=Trachonitis oppositalis; incl. Pempelia caliginosella Meyr. 1879]M86b
              |           |--E. patulalis [incl. Pempelia rufitinctella Meyr. 1878]M86b
              |           `--E. sublignalis [=Trachonitis sublignalis; incl. Pempelia strigiferella Meyr. 1878]M86b
              |         Olycella subumbrellumC1990
              |         NephopteryxP01
              |           |--N. argyrellaP01
              |           |--N. ephestiella Hampson 1901H01
              |           |--N. janthinellaP01
              |           `--N. pirivorellaF92
              |         Plodia interpunctellaNC91
              |         Cactoblastis cactorumNC91
              |         Hypargyria metalliferellaNC91
              |         Creobota coccophthoraNC91
              |         CadraNC91
              |           |--C. cautellaNC91
              |           `--C. figulilellaNC91
              |         Hypsipyla robustaC70
              |         Eurythmia hospitellaH01
              |         UnadillaH01
              |           |--U. latercula Zell in Hampson 1901H01
              |           `--U. stictella Hampson 1901H01
              |         EphestiodesH01
              |           |--E. granulella Hampson 1901H01
              |           `--E. uniformella Hampson 1901H01
              |         Encystia Hampson 1901H01
              |           `--*E. bonhoti Hampson 1901H01
              |         Laetilia coccidivoraH01
              |         ElasmopalpusH01
              |           |--E. lignosellusGW09
              |           `--E. rubedinellus Zell 1848H01
              |         Stylopalpia Hampson 1901H01
              |           `--*S. luniferella Hampson 1901H01
              |         Lipographis subossellaH01
              |         PalatkaNS96
              |           |--P. nymphaeellaNS96
              |           `--P. powelli Neunzig & Solis 1996NS96
              |         ChararicaN96
              |           |--C. circiimperfecta Neunzig 1996N96
              |           `--C. hystriculellaN96
              |         AptungaN96
              |           |--A. culmenicola Neunzig 1996N96
              |           |--A. macropasaN96
              |           |--A. setadebilia Neunzig 1996N96
              |           `--A. vega Neunzig 1996N96
              |         MoodnaN96
              |           |--M. antilleana Neunzig 1996N96
              |           `--M. pallidostrinellaN96
              |         CaudelliaN96
              |           |--C. claraN96
              |           `--C. pilosa Neunzig 1996N96
              |         VarneriaN96
              |           |--V. albiornatella Neunzig 1996N96
              |           |--V. atrifasciellaN96
              |           |--V. dubiaN96
              |           |--V. nannodesN96
              |           `--V. postremellaN96
              |         OzamiaN96
              |           |--O. lucidalisN96
              |           `--O. plagata Neunzig 1996N96
              |         DioryctriaN96
              |           |--D. dominguensis Neunzig 1996N96
              |           |--D. majorellaN96
              |           |--D. merkeliN96
              |           |--D. postmajorella Neunzig 1996N96
              |           `--D. xanthaenobaresG17
              |         DasypygaN96
              |           |--D. alternosquamellaN96
              |           |--D. belizensisN96
              |           `--D. independencia Neunzig 1996N96
              |         LascelinaN96
              |           |--*L. canensN96
              |           `--L. pedernalensis Neunzig 1996N96
              |         Zamagiria rawlinsi Neunzig 1996N96
              |         CaristaniusN96
              |           |--C. pellucidellusN96
              |           `--C. tripartitus Neunzig 1996N96
              |         Anegcephalesis arctellaN96
              |         PiesmopodaR89
              |           |--P. auropurpurella Ragonot 1889R89
              |           |--P. columnellaR89
              |           |--P. laidionR89
              |           `--P. mimella Ragonot 1889R89
              |         Palibothra Ragonot 1889R89
              |           `--*P. fuscogrisella Ragonot 1889R89
              |         SalebriaR89
              |           |--S. euzopherella Ragonot 1889R89
              |           |--S. formosaR89
              |           |--S. marmorataF92
              |           |--S. moestella Ragonot 1889R89
              |           `--S. morosalisR89
              |         LaodamiaR89
              |           |--L. aenochroellaR89
              |           `--L. pernigerella Ragonot 1889R89
              |         SigmarthriaR89
              |           |--S. aspiciella Ragonot 1889R89
              |           `--S. palpellaR89
              |         Papua Ragonot 1889R89
              |           `--*P. latilimbella Ragonot 1889R89
              |         HeosphoraM90
              |           |--H. chlorogramma Meyrick 1890M90
              |           `--H. virginellaM90
              |--Cabnia [Cabniini]H03
              |--AnerastiiniH03
              |--Cryptoblabes [Cryptoblabini]H03
              |    `--C. gnidiellaF92
              `--Phycitini [Acrobasina, Phycitina]H03
                   |--PhycitaH01
                   |    |--P. laidionH01
                   |    `--P. ptyonopodaH01
                   `--AcrobasisH03
                        |--A. consociellaF92
                        |--A. pyrivorellaKN03
                        `--A. tumidanaF92

Sclerobia tritalis (Walker 1863)K66 [=Hypochalcia tritalisK66, Eucarphia tritalisM86b, Hypochalchia (l. c.) tritalisK66, Sclerobia tritialis (l. c.)K66; incl. Eucarphia cnephaeella Meyr. 1879M86b, E. vulgatella Meyrick 1878M86b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

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[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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