Pyrgomorphidae

Mating pair of Atractomorpha sinensis, from here.

Belongs within: Caelifera.

The Pyrgomorphidae are a family of grasshoppers characterised by the presence of a median longitudinal sulcus (groove) extending backwards along the fastigium of the vertex of the head (Rentz 1996). They are diverse in appearance, and some are brightly coloured. The Psednurini are slender, stem-like grasshoppers endemic to Australia that can be found sitting head-upwards on upright monocotyledonous plants (Rentz 1991). Members of the genus Atractomorpha have a conical head with the antennae inserted well in front of the ocelli (Rentz 1996).

<==Pyrgomorphidae [Pyrgomorphoidea]
    |  i. s.: Miopyrgomorpha fischeriZ02
    |         Brunniella [Brunniellini]K72
    |         Phymateus morbillosusK-P91, F92
    |         DesmopterellaK70b
    `--PyrgomorphinaeR96
         |  i. s.: Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier 1791)P05
         |         Omura congrua Walker 1870R18
         |--Desmoptera [Desmopterini]R96
         |    `--D. truncatipennisR96
         |--PetasidiniR96
         |    |--Petasida ephippigeraR96
         |    `--Scutillya verrucosaR96
         |--MonistriiniR96
         |    |--Greyacris profundesulcataR96
         |    |--ParastriaR96
         |    `--Monistria Stål 1873R96, K70a [incl. Cygniterra Rehn 1953K70a, Yeelanna Rehn 1953K70a]
         |         |--M. concinnaR96
         |         |--M. discrepensR96
         |         `--M. pustuliferaR96
         |--AtractomorphaE00 [AtractomorphiniR96]
         |    |--A. aurivilliiB01
         |    |--A. australisR96
         |    |--A. bedeliB01
         |    |--A. crenaticepsK70b
         |    |--A. crenulataB91
         |    |--A. hypoestesR96
         |    |--A. similisR96
         |    `--A. sinensisE00
         `--PsednuriniR96
              |--Psednura Burr 1903 [=Pseudnura (l. c.), Betisca Sjöstedt 1921]K72
              |    |--*P. pedestris (Erichson 1842) (see below for synonymy)K72
              |    `--P. musgravei Rehn 1953 [incl. P. angustissima Rehn 1953]K72
              `--+--Psedna Key 1972K72
                 |    `--*P. nana (Rehn 1953) [=Propsednura hesperus nana]K72
                 `--Propsednura Rehn 1953K72
                      |--*P. eyrei Rehn 1953 [incl. P. hesperus Rehn 1953]K72
                      `--P. peninsularis Key 1972K72

*Psednura pedestris (Erichson 1842) [=Mesops pedestris, *Betisca pedestris, M. pedestis (l. c.); incl. Psednura collina Rehn 1953, P. lanceolata Rehn 1953]K72

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B91] Bland, R. G. 1991. Mating behaviour of Monistria concinna (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) and Heide amiculi (Orthoptera: Eumastacidae) from Australia with notes on their feeding behaviour. Australian Entomological Magazine 18 (1): 1–8.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[K70a] Key, K. H. L. 1970a. Principles of classification and nomenclature. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 141–151. Melbourne University Press.

[K70b] Key, K. H. L. 1970b. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 323–347. Melbourne University Press.

[K72] Key, K. H. L. 1972. A revision of the Psednurini (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 14: 1–72.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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