Pyrochroidae

Fire-coloured beetle Dendroides canadensis, copyright Katja Schulz.

Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Pyrochroidae are a cosmopolitan family of beetles whose larvae are found under bark and in decaying wood (Young 2002).

Characters (from Young 2002): Body slightly to moderately flattened; length 4 to 20 mm; color yellowish to black, commonly black with red or yellow thorax; vestiture usually consisting of dense, semierect hairs over surface of body. Head deflexed, strongly constricted behind the eyes forming a broad neck; surface rugose; antennae with 11 antennomeres; antennae mostly filiform to pectinate (females) or serrate to plumose (males), rarely filiform to submoniliform with last three antennomeres greatly elongated; inserted at side of frons in emargination of eyes. Labrum prominent; mandibles short, curved, apices emarginate or bi- to tridentate; maxillary palpi with four palpomeres, apical palpomere cultriform to slightly securiform; labium with gular process large; mentum trapezoidal, narrowed in front; ligula large, prominent, bilobed; labial palpi with three palpomeres. Eyes moderate in size, emarginate, rarely entire, setose. Prothorax narrower than basal width of elytra, ovate, margins  absent, surface finely punctate, pleural region broad; prosternum large, prosternal process acute; prothoracic coxal cavities open behind externally and internally, trochantins slightly exposed. Scutellum small, shield-shaped. Mesosternum pointed posteriorly, keeled; metasternum long and broad. Legs long, trochantins visible on mesothoracic coxae; prothoracic coxae confluent, large, conical; mesothoracic coxae confluent, conical; metathoracic coxae transverse, slightly separate, with elongate internal keel; trochanters heteromeroid, angular; femora slender; tibiae with apical spurs small, slender; tarsal formula 5-5-4, penultimate tarsomere small, lobed beneath; claws simple to dentate. Elytra broader than abdomen, apices entire, surface rugulose; epipleural fold almost absent, except at base. Wings with radial cell open or closed, anal cell usually present, subcubital fleck poorly defined to absent; wings rarely reduced or absent. Abdomen with five or six ventrites, the last visible ventrite emarginate in male, sutures distinct. Male genitalia with penis  long, somewhat flattened, with two struts at base; parameres fused proximally, separate and subparallel to divergent distally; basal piece well developed. Female genitalia with first and second valvifers reduced to rod-like oblique and ventral bacculi, coxites two-segmented, coxital stylus short, stout, setose. Larva well sclerotised, smooth and shiny; shape depressed, orthosomatic; length 9 to 35 mm; vestiture sparse, consisting of a few setae on most segments; color dull white or yellow with ninth segment usually more heavily sclerotised. Head exserted, prognathous, nearly width of the thorax, epicranial suture lyriform, stem short to absent, frontal arms complete to antennal insertions; frons and clypeus fused. Labrum distinct; mandibles well developed, asymmetrical, apices bi- to tridentate, curved with distinct molar area on right mandible, left mandible with prominent molar tooth; maxilla with diagonally folded cardo, well developed maxillary articulating area, stipes with fused setiferous mala, bearing a distinct uncus, palpi three-segmented; labium with elongate submentum, subquadrate mentum, and well developed ligula; palpi two-segmented. Thorax elongate, sides subparallel, cervicosternum divided into three plates; legs five-segmented, including tarsungulus. Abdomen with nine visible segments, eighth segment often nearly two times as long as seventh; ninth tergum hinged, extending ventrally to form entire terminal segment; paired, fixed, heavily sclerotised, simple or branched urogomphi present caudally or dorsocaudally on ninth tergum. Spiracles annular, on mesothoracic laterotergite and abdominal segments one to eight.

<==Pyrochroidae
    |--Pilipalpinae [Pilipalpidae]MW15
    |    |--MorpholycusMW15
    |    |    |--M. costipennisLB91
    |    |    `--M. monilicornisMW15
    |    |--Temnopalpus bicolorLB91
    |    |--ParomarteonLB91
    |    `--TechmessaLB91
    `--+--Pedilinae [Pedilidae]MW15
       |    |--Anisotria Young 1984Y02
       |    |    `--A. shookiY02
       |    `--Pedilus Fischer 1822 [incl. Corphyra Say 1835, Neopedilus Abdullah 1969]Y02
       |         |--P. cavatusY02
       |         |--P. lugubrisY02
       |         `--P. parvicollisMW15
       `--PyrochroinaeMW15
            |--Schizotus Newman 1838Y02
            |    |--S. cervicalisY02
            |    `--S. fuscicollisY02
            |--Pyrochroa Geoffry 1762Y02
            |    |--P. coccineaR13
            |    |--P. rubensG20
            |    `--P. serraticornis (Scopoli 1763)B14
            |--Neopyrochroa Blair 1914Y02
            |    |--N. californicaY02
            |    |--N. femoralisY02
            |    |--N. flabellataY02
            |    `--N. sierraensisY02
            `--Dendroides Latreille 1810Y02
                 |--D. canadensisY02
                 |--D. concolorY02
                 |--D. ephemeroidesY02
                 |--D. marginataY02
                 |--D. picipesY02
                 `--D. testaceaY02
Pyrochroidae incertae sedis:
  Eucistela cyanea Carter 1922MB08
  Palaeopyrochroa crowsoniP92
  Tydessa Peacock 1982 [Tydessinae]Y02
    `--T. blaisdelliY02
  AgnathinaeY02
    |--Agnathus Germar 1818Y02
    `--Cononotus LeConte 1851Y02
         |--C. bryantiY02
         |--C. lanchesteriY02
         |--C. macerY02
         |--C. punctatusY02
         |--C. sericansY02
         `--C. substriatusY02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[Y02] Young, D. K. 2002. Pyrochroidae Latreille 1807. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 540–543. CRC Press.

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