Quiscalus

Female great-tailed grackles Quiscalus mexicanus, copyright Linda Tanner.

Belongs within: Icteridae.

Quiscalus, the grackles, are a genus of gregarious, omnivorous birds found in southern North America and northern South America. Members of the genus have long wedge-shaped tails; males have iridescent black plumage whereas females are rusty brown.

<==Quiscalus Vieillot 1816 [incl. Cassidix Lesson 1831, Chalcophanes Wagler 1827; Chalcophaninae, Quiscalinae]B94
    |  i. s.: Q. aequatorialisSS66
    |         ‘Cassidix’ orizivoraS18
    |           |--C. o. orizivoraS18
    |           `--C. o. violeaS18
    |--Q. palustrisBKB15 [=Cassidix palustrisFP64]
    |--Q. quiscula (Linnaeus 1758)JF06, F11 [=Gracula quisculaF11, Icterus quiscalaJ23]
    |    |--Q. q. quisculaYS68 [incl. Q. quiscula stonei Chapman 1935YS68, F11]
    |    `--Q. q. versicolor Vieillot 1819F11 [incl. Q. quiscula ridgwayiYS68]
    `--+--Q. lugubris Swainson 1838BKB15, F11 [=Holoquiscalus lugubrisF11]
       |    |--Q. l. lugubrisF11
       |    |--Q. l. contrusus (Peters 1925)F11
       |    |--Q. l. fortirostris Lawrence 1868F11
       |    |--Q. l. guadeloupensis Lawrence 1879F11
       |    |--Q. l. inflexirostris Swainson 1838F11
       |    |--Q. l. insularis Richmond 1896F11
       |    |--Q. l. luminosus Lawrence 1878F11
       |    `--Q. l. orquillensis (Cory 1909)F11
       `--+--Q. nicaraguensis Salvin & Godman 1891BKB15, F11 [=Cassidix nicaraguensisFP64]
          `--+--Q. niger (Boddaert 1783)BKB15, F11 [=Oriolus nigerF11, Holoquiscalis nigerF11]
             |    |--Q. n. nigerF11
             |    |--Q. n. bangsi (Peters 1921)F11
             |    |--Q. n. brachypterus Cassin 1867F11
             |    |--Q. n. caribaeus (Todd 1916)F11
             |    |--Q. n. caymanensis Cory 1886F11
             |    |--Q. n. crassirostris Swainson 1838F11
             |    `--Q. n. gundlachii Cassin 1867F11
             `--+--Q. major Vieillot 1819JF06, F11
                |    |--Q. m. majorF11
                |    |--Q. m. alabamensis Stevenson 1978F11
                |    |--Q. m. torreyi (Harper 1934)F11
                |    `--Q. m. westoni Sprunt 1934F11
                `--Q. mexicanus (Gmelin 1788)JF06, F11 [=Corvus mexicanusF11, Cassidix mexicanusFP64]
                     |--Q. m. mexicanusF11
                     |--Q. m. graysoni Sclater 1884F11
                     |--Q. m. loweryi (Dickerman & Phillips 1966)F11
                     |--Q. m. monsoni (Phillips 1950)F11
                     |--Q. m. nelsoni (Ridgway 1901)F11
                     |--Q. m. obscurus Nelson 1900F11
                     |--Q. m. peruvianus Swainson 1838F11
                     `--Q. m. prosopidicola (Lowery 1938)F11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[YS68] Yang, S. Y., & R. K. Selander. 1968. Hybridization in the grackle Quiscalus quiscula in Louisiana. Systematic Zoology 17 (2): 107–143.

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