Thornback skate Raja clavata, copyright Bj. Schoenmakers.

Belongs within: Rajiformes.

Raja is a genus of skates in which the snout bears a well-defined, firm rostral cartilage (Last & Compagno 1999).

<==Raja Linnaeus 1758H72
    |--R. (Raja)H72
    |    |--*R. (R.) miraletus Linnaeus 1758H72
    |    |--R. (R.) clavata Linnaeus 1758H72
    |    |--R. (R.) herwigiH72
    |    |--R. (R.) maderensisH72
    |    |--R. (R.) pictaH72
    |    `--R. (R.) straeleni Poll 1951H72
    |--R. (Okamejei)LC99
    |    |--R. (O.) acutispina Ishiyama 1958LC99
    |    |--R. (O.) boesemani Ishihara 1987LC99
    |    |--R. (O.) hollandi Jordan & Richardson 1909LC99
    |    `--R. (O.) kenojei Müller & Henle 1841LC99
    `--R. (Rostroraja Hulley 1972) [incl. Iotaraia Leigh-Sharpe 1924 (nom. inv.)]H72
         `--R. (*R.) alba Lacépède 1803 [=Iotaraia alba; incl. R. marginata]H72
Raja incertae sedis:
  R. altavela Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. aquila Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. blandaH72
  R. brachyuraH72
  R. casieriF91
  R. ceciliaeF91
  R. eglanteria Bosc 1800M02 [=Rostroraja eglanteriaVF21]
  R. heinzeliniF91
  R. lemprieri Richardson 1846G61
  R. linteaH72
  R. macrorhynchusY56
  R. maculataY56
  R. montaguiLOL03
  R. montereyensisY56
  R. murrayiH72
  R. ogilbyi Whitley 1939G61
  R. oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. pastinaca Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. porosaBJ06
  R. punctataY56
  R. rhinobatos Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. richardsoni Garrick 1961G61
  R. rubusY56
  R. schmidtiBN03
  R. terhagenensisF91
  R. texanaHC79
  R. torpedo Linnaeus 1758L58
  R. undulataL43

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BJ06] Bourlat, S. J., T. Juliusdottir, C. J. Lowe, R. Freeman, J. Aronowicz, M. Kirschner, E. S. Lander, M. Thorndyke, H. Nakano, A. B. Kohn, A. Heyland, L. L. Moroz, R. R. Copley & M. J. Telford. 2006. Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida. Nature 444 (7115): 85–89.

[BN03] Bourlat, S. J., C. Nielsen, A. E. Lockyer, D. T. J. Littlewood & M. J. Telford. 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature 424: 925–928.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G61] Garrick, J. A. F. 1961. Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii. Part XIII. A new species of Raja from 1,300 fathoms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (4): 743–748.

[HC79] Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (4): 1–101.

[H72] Hulley, P. A. 1972. The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Annals of the South African Museum 60 (1): 1–103.

[LC99] Last, P. R., & L. J. V. Compagno. 1999. Rajidae. Hardnose skates. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1452–1456. FAO: Rome.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LOL03] Lockyer, A. E., P. D. Olson & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Utility of complete large and small subunit rRNA genes in resolving the phylogeny of the Neodermata (Platyhelminthes): implications and a review of the cercomer theory. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 155–171.

[L43] Lowe, R. T. 1843. On the fishes of Madeira. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 81–95.

[M02] McEachran, J. D. 2002. Skates. Family Rajidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 60–75. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

[Y56] Young, R. T. 1956. A review of the cestode genus Echeneibothrium. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (8): 256–265.

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