Black hellebore Helleborus niger, copyright Apollonio Tottoli.

Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Aconitum, Delphinium, Aquilegia, Anemone, Clematis, Caltha, Pulsatilla, Thalictrum, Ranunculus.

The Ranunculaceae are a cosmopolitan family of mostly herbaceous plants including the buttercups and related species. Many members of the Ranunculaceae are popular as garden plants. Flowers are most commonly radial though in some genera such as Aconitum and Aquilegia they are bilateral with upper sepals differentiated (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Whittemore & Parfitt): Herbs, sometimes woody or herbaceous climbers or low shrubs, perennial or annual, often rhizomatous. Stems unarmed. Leaves usually basal and cauline, alternate or sometimes opposite, rarely whorled, simple or variously compound; stipules present or absent; petioles usually present, often proximally sheathing. Leaf blade undivided or more commonly divided or compound, base cordate, sometimes truncate or cuneate, margins entire, toothed, or incised; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, umbels, panicles, or spikes, or flowers solitary, flowers pedicellate or sessile. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, inconspicuous or showy, radially or bilaterally symmetric; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous; sepals usually imbricate, 3-6(-20), distinct, often petaloid and colored, occasionally spurred; petals 0-26, distinct (rarely connate), plane, cup-shaped, funnel-shaped, or spurred, conspicuous or greatly reduced; nectary usually present, rarely absent; stamens 5-many, distinct; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; staminodes usually absent; pistils 1-many; styles present or absent, often persistent in fruit as beak. Fruits achenes, follicles, or rarely utricles, capsules, or berries, often aggregated into globose to cylindric heads. Seeds 1-many per ovary, never stalked, not arillate; endosperm abundant; embryo usually small.

    |    |--Xanthorhiza simplicissimaT00, NDA05
    |    `--CoptisT00
    |         |--C. japonicaNI97
    |         |--C. laciniataH93
    |         `--C. trifoliaA16
    |    |--ThalictrumT00
    |    `--IsopyrumH93
    |         |--I. occidentaleH93
    |         `--I. stipitatumH93
    `--Ranunculoideae [Helleboroideae]T00
         |--Ficaria vernaH98, BBO01
              |--H. foetidusHB03
              |--H. nigerBW64
              `--H. viridisC55b
Ranunculaceae incertae sedis:
    |--N. arvensis Linnaeus 1753PL04
    |    |--N. a. ssp. arvensisPL04
    |    |--N. a. ssp. glaucaPT98
    |    `--N. a. ssp. rechingeri (Tutin) Tutin 1964PL04
    |--N. damascenaPT01
    `--N. sativaC55a
    |--A. aestivalisH93
    |--A. autumnalisC55b
    |--A. microcarpaPT98
    |--A. nepalensisO88
    `--A. vernalisTG88
  Calliantheum pimpinelloidesO88
    |--C. foetidaWC00
    |    |--C. f. var. foetidaWC00
    |    `--C. f. var. velutina Franch. ex Finet & Gagnep. 1904WC00
    `--C. simplex Wormsk. 1824WC00
  Oxygraphis polypetalaO88
  Paraquilegia microphyllaO88
  Paroxygraphis sikkimensisO88
    |--T. europaeusH09
    `--T. pumilusO88
         |--T. p. f. pumilusO88
         `--T. p. f. sikkimensisO88
  Garidella nigellastrumPT98
    |--H. filisecta Liou 1980WC00
    `--H. sarmentosa (Adams) Kom. 1931WC00
  Semiaquilegia adozoides (DC.) Makino 1902WC00
  Myosurus Linnaeus 1753A61
    |--M. apetalus [incl. M. aristatus, M. minimus ssp. montanus]H93
    |--M. cupulatusH93
    |--M. minimus [incl. M. minimus ssp. apus, M. minimus var. filiformis, M. minimus ssp. major]H93
    |    |--M. m. var. minimusH90
    |    `--M. m. var. australisH90
    |--M. novae-zelandiae Oliver 1926A61
    `--M. sessilis [incl. M. minimus var. sessiliflorus]H93
  Actaea rubra [incl. A. rubra ssp. arguta]H93
  Consolida ambiguaH93
  Kumlienia hystricula [=Ranunculus hystriculus]H93
  Trautvetteria caroliniensisH93
    |--T. c. var. caroliniensisH93
    `--T. c. var. occidentalis [incl. T. grandis]H93
  Paeoniaecarpum hungaricum Andreânszky 1961CBH93
  Punctioratipollis ludwigiCBH93
  Actinospora Turcz. 1835KC01
  Flammula (DC.) Fourr. 1868KC01
  *Anemonastrum narcissiflorum [=Anemone narcissiflora (nom. cons.), Anemone narcissifolia]BGS05
  *Anemonidium dichotomumBGS05
    |--*A. nemorosa [=Anemone nemorosa]BGS05
    |--A. baldensis (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
    |--A. ranunculoides [=Anemone ranunculoides]BGS05
    |--A. sylvestris (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
    `--A. trifolia [=Anemone trifolia]BGS05
         |--A. t. ssp. trifoliaBGS05
         |--A. t. ssp. albida (Mariz) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
         `--A. t. ssp. brevidentata (Ubaldi & Puppi) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
  *Eriocapitella japonicaBGS05
    |--H. nobilis Schreb. 1771BGS05
    `--H. transsilvanicaH09
  Naravelia zeylanicaT-W89

Anemonoides baldensis (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Anemone baldensis L. 1767]BGS05

Anemonoides sylvestris (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Anemone sylvestris L. 1753]BGS05

Anemonoides trifolia ssp. albida (Mariz) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Anemone albida Mariz 1886]BGS05

Anemonoides trifolia ssp. brevidentata (Ubaldi & Puppi) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Anemone trifolia ssp. brevidentata Ubaldi & Puppi 1989]BGS05

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[WC00] Wang R.-J. & Chen Z.-Y. 2000. New data of some Ranunculaceae plants in China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 22: 126–128.

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