Veined rapa whelk
Rapana venosa, copyright Holger Krisp.

Belongs within: Muricidae.
Contains: Lepsiella, Nassa, Acanthina, Morula, Drupa, Thais.

The Rapaninae, including purples and drupes, are a group of muricid gastropods with thick and solid, often strongly sculptured shells that lack true varices, and a horny operculum with a lateral nucleus. Most species feed on barnacles, bivalves and other molluscs, often by boring a hole through the prey’s shell (Wilson & Gillett 1971).

<==Rapaninae (see below for synonymy) ZLK11
|–Cronia Adams & Adams 1853 ZLK11, WG71
|    |–*C. amygdala (Kiener 1835) [=Purpura amygdala] RA75
|    |–C. avellana Reeve 1846 WG71
|    `–C. pseudamygdala Hedley 1903 WG71
`–+–Morula ZLK11
`–+–Drupa ZLK11
`–+–‘Thais’ gradata ZLK11
`–+–Stramonita Schumacher 1817 ZLK11, RA75
|    `–*S. haemastoma (Linné 1867) [=Buccinum haemastoma] RA75
`–+–Thais ZLK11
`–Rapana Schumacher 1817 ZLK11, BR05
|  i. s.: R. neozelanica A27
|         R. tomasiana G31
|         R. waihaoensis A27
|–R. venosa (Valenciennes 1846) ZLK11, BD86 (see below for synonymy)
`–+–R. bezoar (Linnaeus 1758) ZLK11, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
`–R. rapiformis (Born 1778) ZLK11, BD86

Rapaninae incertae sedis:
Lepsiella WG71
Nassa WG71
Agnewia Tenison-Woods 1878 P61 [=Adamsia Dunker 1857 non Forbes 1840 RA75]
`–A. tritoniformis (Blainville 1832) P61, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
‘Purpurella’ Bellardi 1882 nec Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 nec Dall 1871 BR05
`–*P. canaliculata Bellardi 1882 RA75
Taurasia Bellardi 1882 BR05
`–*T. subfusiformis (d’Orbigny 1952) (see below for synonymy) BR17
Concholepas Lamarck 1801 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
`–C. concholepas (Bruguière 1789) GO78 (see below for synonymy)
Vexilla Swainson 1840 WG71, RA75 [=Provexillum Hedley 1918 RA75]
|–V. vexillum (Gmelin 1791) WG71 (see below for synonymy)
`–V. fuscolineata C64
Preangeria Martin 1921 PH90
`–*P. angsanana Martin 1921 PH90
Neothais Iredale 1912 P61
|–*N. smithi (Brazier 1889) [=Purpura smithi] RA75
|–N. clathrata (Adams 1854) HS01
`–N. lacunosa F27
Mancinella Link 1807 WG71
|–*M. mancinella (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 (see below for synonymy)
|–M. bufo M54
`–M. tuberosa Röding 1798 [incl. Thais pica Blainville 1832] WG71
Dicathais Iredale 1936 WG71
|–*D. orbita (Gmelin 1791) RA75 [=Buccinum orbita RA75, Neothais (*Dicathais) orbita P61]
|–D. baileyana Tenison Woods 1881 WG71
|–D. scalaris Menke 1829 WG71 [=Neothais (Dicathais) scalaris P61]
`–D. textilosa Lamarck 1822 [incl. D. aegrota Reeve 1846] WG71
Purpura Bruguière 1789 BR05
|–*P. persica (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 [=Buccinum persicum RA75, Haustrum persicum F27, Thais persica H09]
|–P. aperta C64
|–P. auriculata [incl. Buccinum coromandelianum] G79
|–P. bicostalis [incl. P. haemastoma] G79
|–P. biserialis [incl. P. bufonides] C64
|–P. canaliculata Duclos 1832 [incl. P. analoga, P. attenuata, P. decemcostata] C64
|–P. centiquadra Val. in Duclos 1832 [=P. speciosa Val. 1833] C64
|–P. conoidea H86
|–P. crispata (see below for synonymy) C64
|–P. foliata Martyn 1784 O27 (see below for synonymy)
|–P. freycinetii C64
|–P. gigantea G79
|–P. harpa C64
|–P. lamellosa (see below for synonymy) C64
|–P. melones Duclos 1832 C64
|–P. nuttallii Conrad 1837 O27
|    |–P. n. nuttallii O27
|    |–P. n. aciculiger Valenciennes 1846 O27
|    |–P. n. albescens Dall 1919 O27
|    `–P. n. albofasciata Dall 1919 O27
|–P. ostrina C64
|–P. pansa SF77 [=P. patula pansa EO64]
|–P. patula (Linnaeus 1758) HW78 (see below for synonymy)
|–P. picta [incl. Buccinum assimile, Cantharus (Tritonidea) assimilis] H08
|–P. plicata G79
|–P. rudolphi FP15
|–P. saxicola [incl. P. fuscata, P. lagena (n. n.) C64
|–P. semiimbricata C64
|–P. sphaeridia Duclos 1832 C64
|–P. succincta C64
|–P. textiliosa H86
|–P. trapa [incl. P. deltoidea] G79
|–P. triangularis C64
|–P. triserialis C64
`–P. undata G79 [incl. P. bicarinata G79, Murex nodus Linnaeus 1758 G79, L58, P. nodus G79]
Acanthina S11
Chorus Gray 1847 C64, RA75
`–*C. giganteus (Lesson 1831) [=Monoceros giganteus] RA75

Nomen nudum: Purpura emarginata Mighels 1841 J49 [incl. P. conradi Nutt. ms C64]

Agnewia tritoniformis (Blainville 1832) P61, RA75 [=Purpura tritoniformis RA75, Thais tritoniformis F27; incl. *Adamsia typica Dunker 1857 RA75, *Agnewia typica RA75]

Concholepas Lamarck 1801 BR05 [incl. Conchopatella Herrmannsen 1847 RA75, Conchulus Rafinesque 1815 RA75; Concholepadidae]

Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière 1789) GO78 [=Buccinum concholepas RA75; incl. *C. peruviana Lamarck 1801 BR17, RA75]

*Mancinella mancinella (Linnaeus 1758) RA75 [=Murex mancinella RA75, Drupa mancinella H09, Purpura mancinella B79; incl. Mancinella aculeata Link 1807 RA75, Drupa carnus Bolten 1798 H08, Purpura elata Blainville 1832 H08, P. martiniana Anton 1839 H08, Ricinula spectrum Reeve 1846 H08]

Purpura crispata [=Buccinum crispatum Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial), Murex crispatus, M. ferrugineus, Buccinum lactuca, M. lactuca, Purpura lactuca, P. septentrionalis] C64

Purpura lamellosa [=Buccinum lamellosum; incl. B. compositum Chemnitz 1780–1795 (non-binomial), B. plicatum Martyn 1784 non Linnaeus 1758] C64

Purpura patula (Linnaeus 1758) HW78 [=Cymbium tuberosum patulum C64; incl. Perdicea nodosa C64, Haustrum tuberculatum Perry 1811 C64]

Rapana bezoar (Linnaeus 1758) ZLK11, RA75 [=Buccinum bezoar RA75; incl. *R. foliacea Schumacher 1817 RA75]

Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) ZLK11, BD86 [=Purpura venosa BD86; incl. R. bezoar Reeve 1847 non Buccinum bezoar Linnaeus 1758 BD86, R. pontica Nordsieck 1969 BD86, R. thomasiana Crosse 1861 BD86]

Rapaninae [Purpurellinae, Purpuridae, Purpurifera, Purpurinae, Rapananina, Rapanidae, Taurasiinae, Taurasinae, Thaididae, Thaidinae, Thaisidae] ZLK11

*Taurasia subfusiformis (d’Orbigny 1952) [=Purpura subfusiformis, P. fusiformis Michelotti 1847 non Röding 1798] BR17

Vexilla vexillum (Gmelin 1791) WG71 [=Murex vexillum RA75, Strombus vexillum H09; incl. *Vexilla picta Swainson 1840 RA75, *Provexillum pictum RA75]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B79] Brazier, J. 1879. List of marine shells collected on Fitzroy Island, north coast of Australia; with notes on their geographical range. Journal of Conchology 2: 186–199.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[EO64] Emerson, W. K., & W. E. Old Jr. 1964. Additional records from Cocos Island. Nautilus 77 (3): 90–92.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H08] Hedley, C. 1908. Studies on Australian Mollusca. Part X. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 456–489, pls 7–10.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HW78] Hoffman, D. L., & P. J. Weldon. 1978. Flight responses of two intertidal gastropods (Prosobranchia: Trochidae) to sympatric predatory gastropods from Barbados. Veliger 20 (4): 361–366.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

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[SF77] Smith, A. G., & A. J. Ferreira. 1977. Chiton fauna of the Galápagos Islands. Veliger 20 (2): 82–97.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 18 September 2021.

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